Construction History Bibliography
Maintained by the Construction History Society


View Entry Author Year of Publication Title Abstract Keywords
Heaton, M.J. 2016 Spolia Britannica: The Historical Use of Salvaged Building Materials in Britain. MPhil Thesis, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath. The thesis demonstrates that architectural salvage was culturally endemic throughout Britain throughout the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period and was facilitated by sophisticated markets, distribution networks and customary non-economic ’linear exchange’. In addition to its iconographic and economic value, salvage was an important vector of technological and stylistic diffusion. As ’spolia’, salvaged architectural details were used by Catholic and other minority owners as expressions of cultural affinity and political legitimacy. spolia salvage catholic non-conformist britain
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’Building Palaeopathology: Practical Applications of Archaeological Building Analysis’, Structural Survey Vol 27 No. 2, pp119-137 This article demonstrates how the archaeological analysis of buildings can be used in the design and management of building refurbishment projects, using case studies from the author’s professional work in southwest Britain. It was awarded ’Outstanding Paper 2010’ by the publishers. It is available as a PDF from the publishers. bauforschung buildings-archaeology palaeopathology
Beard, G. 1981 Craftsmen and Interior Decoration in England 1660-1820 The most authoritative a definitive historical study of architectural decoration in England during the Georgian Period. 292 pages plus Glossary, Index and Bibliography Georgian Interiors Decorators Craftsmen
Manfredi, C. 2012 ’Comfort versus Industry: Maintenance of the Royal Palaces of Milan during the 1860s’, Nuts and Bolts of Construction, Vol 3, pp289-298 Paper presented at the 2012 Paris congress on Construction History concerning 19th century advances in building environmental technology and cultural resistance to their use in Milan. Milan, Building Services, Heating, Ventilation
Yeomans, D. 1992 The Trussed Roof: Its History and Development The definitive study of the history and development of trussed roofs, with particular attention to those of Britain but drawing upon their European origins and counterparts, written by a Structural Engineer and leading academic specialising in the analysis of historic structures. Roof truss, truss, king post, queen post, Wren, Inigo Jones, strut, tie beam
Stanier, P. 2000 Stone Quarry Landscapes: The Industrial Archaeology of Quarrying This book explains how building stone was extracted before the advent of modern machinery and then examines the history of the principle stone sources in Britain. It is well illustrated with historic photographs, prints and the authors explanatory line drawings and has an excellent bibliography. quarry quarrying mine stone
Guo, Q 2000 ’Tile and Brick Making in China: a Study of the Yingzao Fashi’, Construction History, Vol 16, pp3-12 Article examining the making of brick and tile as described in the oldest surviving published national building standard - the Yingzao Fashi of early 12th century Song China. brick tile Yingzao Fashi Song China standards
Fancelli, P. 2008 De Spoliis in Fictas Ruinas, in J.F.Bernard, P.Bernardi & D. Esposito (Eds), Il Reimpiego in Architettura: Recupero, Trasformazione, Uso; Collection de L’Ecole Francaise de Rome 418 Paper exploring the formative use of salvaged materials - or Spolia - in ’fictitious ruins’ of the Gothik and Romantic movements in 17th - early 19th C Europe, with large number of examples from Britain. spolia giardini Gothik Romantic Celtic Revival
Carvais, R. 2008 ’Le Reemploi des materiaux de construction a paris sous L’Ancient Regime’, in J.F.Bernard, P.Bernardi & D. Esposito (Eds), ’Il Reimpiego in Architettura: Recupero, Trasformazione, Uso’, Collections Ecole Freancaise de Rome 418 Paper on the economics and logistics of the use of salvaged construction materials in Paris during the 17th and 18th centuries, drawing on a large number of historical sources including building contracts. Reveals that ’salvage’ was not always cheaper than new material, especially during times of war. spolia salvage ancien regime paris
Volmer, L., & Zimmerman, W.H. 2012 Glossar zum praehistorischen und historischen Holzbau The definitive multi-lingual glossary for timber buildings in the principle north European and Scandinavian languages plus Czech and Polish. Well-illustrated and logically arranged by building type and building element, it also illustrates the similarities and differences between the timber building traditions of northern Europe and Scandinavia. glossary glossar wortbuch holzbau timber
McLean, W., & Silver, P. 2015 Air Structures Air can be used in a variety of ways to make lightweight, flexible structures. It can be used to make inflatable structures, mobile structures and temporary buildings. It can also activate movable elements and act as a means of constructing buildings that would be impossible with conventional construction methods. This book looks at every facet of the subject, examining the different types of air structure: super pressure buildings, air-beam structures, buoyant structures, inflatable structures and many more. It also looks at the construction methods that use air, such as air-inflated steel, aerated concrete and blow moulding. Inflatable, Pneumatic, Air-Pressure
Faircloth, B. 2015 Plastics Now: On Architecture’s Relationship to a Continuously Emerging Material Plastics, Construction, Architecture, Composites
Dietz, A. G. H 1969 Plastics for Architects and Builders Plastics, Construction, Architecture, Composites
Price, C., & Newby, F., & Suan, R.H. 1971 Air Structures: A survey Inflatable, Pneumatic, Air-Pressure, Government Report
Quarmby, A. 1974 The Plastic Architect Plastics, Fabrication Technology, Materials History, Spatial Enclosures
Institution of Structural Engineers 1999 Structural Use of Glass in Buildings Structural Glass, Stairs, Floors, Bridges, Balustrades, Lamination, Adhesives
Silver, P., McLean, W., & Veglio, S. 2006 Fabrication: The Designer’s Guide Fabrication Processes, Metal Spinning, Metal Casting, Terrazzo, Glass Reinforced Polymer
Bini, D. 2014 Building With Air Binidome, Binishell, Binix, Fabric-formed Concrete
Silver, P., McLean, W., & Evans, P. 2013 Structural Engineering for Architects: A Handbook This book provides an understanding of the fundamental theories and practice behind the creation of architectural structures. It aids the development of an intuitive understanding of structural engineering, bringing together technical and design issues. The book is divided into four sections: ’Structures in nature’ looks at structural principles found in natural objects. ’Theory’ covers general structural theory as well as explaining the main forces in engineering. ’Structural prototypes’ includes examples of modelmaking and load testing that can be carried out by students. The fourth section, ’Case studies’, presents a diverse range of examples from around the world – actual buildings that apply the theories and testing described in the previous sections. Structures in Nature, Structural Theory, Structural Systems, Case Studies
Silver, P., & McLean, W. 2013 Introduction to Architectural Technology (Second Edition) This book clearly explains the core aspects of architectural technology: structural physics, structural elements and forms, heating, lighting, environmental control and computer modelling. Hundreds of photographs and diagrams demonstrate common architectural forms and construction techniques. Historical and contemporary examples chart significant moments in architectural engineering and the development of materials science Includes an examination of computer-aided design (CAD) and the use of building information management (BIM) technology for predicting and analyzing the behaviour of buildings. Structure & Form, Structural Logic, Climate & Shelter, Human Comfort
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2002 Degli archi e delle volte. Arte del costruire tra meccanica e stereotomia Construction History
Becchi, A. 2004 Q.XVI. Leonardo, Galileo e il caso Baldi: Magonza, 26 marzo 1621
Becchi, A. 2017 Naufragi di terra e di mare. Da Leonardo da Vinci a Theodor Mommsen, alla ricerca dei codici Albani. Edizione del manoscritto XIII.F.25, cc. 129-136, della Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli a cura di Oreste Trabucco
Becchi, A. 2007 I criteri di plasticità: cento anni di dibattito (1864-1964)
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2002 Towards a History of Construction
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2003 Essays in the History of Mechanics
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2004 Construction History. Research Perspectives in Europe
Becchi. A., Bertoloni Meli, D., & Gamba. E. 2013 Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607). Theory and Practice of the Mathematical Disciplines from Urbino to Europe
Becchi, A., Rousteau-Chambon, H., & Sakarovitch J. 2013 Philippe de La Hire entre Architecture et Sciences
Becchi, A., Carvais, R., & Sakarovitch, J. 2018 Construction History. Survey of a European Building Site / L’Histoire de la construction. Relevé d’un chantier européen
Becchi, A., Carvais, R., & Sakarovitch, J. 2015 Construction History. A European Meridian
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2005 Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica
Becchi, A. 2002 Aurea concinnitas: pour une orthodoxie hérétique, in A. Becchi, M. Corradi, F. Foce, O. Pedemonte (eds.), Towards a history of construction, Birkhäuser, Basel 2002, p. 523-528.
Becchi, A. 2003 Before 1695. The static of arches between France and Italy, in S. Huerta (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History (Madrid, 20th - 24th January 2003), Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid 2003, vol. 1, p. 353-364.
Becchi, A. 2005 Raisons A-symétriques. Équilibre des formes et formes de l’équilibre dans la theoria columnarum, in P. Radelet-de Grave (ed.), Symétries, Brepols, Turnhout 2005, p. 35-61
Becchi, A. 2005 Fortuna (e sfortuna) critica del De re aedificatoria di Bernardino Baldi, in E. Nenci (ed.), Bernardino Baldi (1553-1617) studioso rinascimentale: poesia, storia, linguistica, meccanica, architettura, FrancoAngeli, Milan 2005, p. 303-316.
Becchi, A. 2005 Baustatik, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2005, vol. 1, col. 1093-1100
Becchi, A. 2005 Vaults in the Air: Signor Fabritio’s English Theory, in S. Huerta (ed.), Essays in the history of the theory of structures. In honour of Jacques Heyman, CEHOPU, CEDEX, Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid 2005, p. 45-59
Becchi, A. 2005 88317.63520 Tarli della storia, piatti di lenticchie e vecchie zie, in G. Mochi (ed.), Theory and Practice of Construction: Knowledge, Means, Models, Ed. Moderna, Ravenna 2005, vol. I, p. 57-62
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2005 Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica. From the passing references to a study of the sources, Introduction to the CD-rom series Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica, Genoa 2005
Becchi, A. 2006 Festigkeitslehre, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2006, vol. 3, col. 945-948
Becchi, A. 2006 Gewölbebau, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2006, vol. 4, col. 881-884
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., & Foce, F. 2006 La fine dell’inizio: 26 Maggio 1980 (with M. Corradi and F. Foce), in E. Benvenuto, La scienza delle costruzioni e il suo sviluppo storico, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Rome 2006, p. V-XVIII
Becchi, A. 2006 Eggs, turnips and chains: rhetoric and rhetoricians of architecture, in H. Schlimme (ed.), Practice and Science in Early Modern Italian Building. Towards an Epistemic History of Architecture, Electa, Milan 2006, p. 97-112
Becchi, A. 2007 Wusste Galileo davon? Die Architektur als Theatrum pro experimentali philosophia, in Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 2007 (digital edition,
Becchi, A. 2008 “Taccia dunque la turba de gli Architetti pratici ...”. Henry Wotton und der Abt von Guastalla, in W. Oechslin (ed.), Wissensformen, gta-Verlag, Zürich 2008, p. 100-107
Becchi, A. 2008 Imaginer l’entasis. Constructions, définitions, malentendus dans les traités de la Renaissance, in R. Gargiani (ed.), La construction de la colonne. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 2008, p. 149-163
Becchi, A. 2008 Les paradoxes (historiographiques) de la vis columnarum, in R. Gargiani (ed.), La construction de la colonne. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 2008, p. 203-219
Becchi, A. 2008 Bernardino Baldi, in N. Koertge (ed.), The new dictionary of scientific biography, vol. 1, Ch. Scribner’s Sons, Detroit 2008, p. 166-168
Becchi, A. 2009 Vitruvius in the Sahara: Auguste Choisy’s ‘philologie plafonnante’, in J. Girón, S. Huerta (eds.), Auguste Choisy (1841-1909). L’architecture et l’art de bâtir. Actas del Simposio Internacional, Madrid, 19-20.11.2009
Becchi, A. 2009 Juxta textum Vitruvii et mentem Newtonii. Das neue Wissen und das «Räthsel der Architektur», in W. Oechslin (ed.), Architekt und/versus Baumeister, gta Verlag, Zürich 2009, p. 40-49
Becchi, A. 2009 Pregnant Columns. From Word to Shape, in H. Nowacki, W. Lefèvre (eds.), Creating Shapes in Civil and Naval Architecture. A Cross-Disciplinary Comparison, Brill, Leiden and Boston 2009, pp. 279-296
Becchi, A. 2009 The Body of the Architect. Flesh, Bones and Forces between Mechanical and Architectural Theories, in K.-E. Kurrer, W. Lorenz, V. Wetzk (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Construction History, Cottbus, 2009, vol. 1, p. 151-158
Becchi, A. 2009 Uno e trino. Impronte stravaganti di un testimone postumo, in F.P. Di Teodoro (ed.), Saggi di letteratura architettonica, da Vitruvio a Winckelmann, Olschki, Florence 2009, vol. 1, p. 19-35
Becchi, A. 2010 La doppia vita di una ‘mauvaise règle’. La regola di Derand tra Leon Battista Alberti e Simone Stratico, in P. Cassinello, S. Huerta, J.M. de Prada Poole, R.S. Lampreave (eds.), Geometry and Proportion in Structural Design, p. 123-139
Becchi, A. 2010 Architecture as a mechanical problem. A ‘new’ Renaissance manuscript and some old stories, in A. Sinopoli (ed.), Mechanics and architecture between Epistéme and Techné, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Rome 2010, p. 97-106
Becchi, A. 2010 Histoire de la construction: un regard italien, in R. Carvais, A. Guillerme, V. Nègre, J. Sakarovitch (eds.), Édifice et artifice. Histoires constructives, Picard, Paris 2010, p. 59-63
Becchi, A. 2010 L’asino che vola: architettura, ricerca, metodi tossici, in E. Rabasa, J. Ibáñez, D. Sanz (eds.), Actas Tercera Jornadas Sobre Investigación en Arquitectura y Urbanismo (Madrid, 17-19 Junio 2009), Mairea Libros, Madrid 2010, p. XXXIV-XLVII
Becchi, A. 2011 Cantieri d’inchiostro: meccanica teorica e meccanica chirurgica nella seconda metà del Cinquecento, in G. Curcio, N. Navone, S. Villari (eds.), Studi su Domenico Fontana 1543-1607, Silvana Editoriale, Milan 2011, p. 91-103
Becchi, A. 2012 La poutre brisée: une question, deux réponses, in R. Gargiani (dir.), L’architrave, le plancher, la plate-forme. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne 2012, p. 316-328
Becchi, A. 2012 Ut unum sint: poutres, arcs, plates-bandes, in R. Gargiani (dir.), L’architrave, le plancher, la plate-forme. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne 2012, p. 329-340
Becchi, A. 2012 Il corpo dell’inventio: Vitruvio interprete di Archimede, in “Horti Hesperidum. Studi di storia del collezionismo e della storiografia artistica”, 2012, fasc. 2, p. 39-60
Becchi, A. 2013 Idées manuscrites, théories imprimées: la mécanique architecturale de Philippe de La Hire, in A. Becchi, H. Rousteau-Chambon, J. Sakarovitch (eds.), Philippe de La Hire entre architecture et sciences, Picard, Paris 2013, pp. 177-190
Becchi, A. 2013 ...zoticamente non intendendo le Mechaniche. La scientia aedificandi ai tempi di Guidobaldo del Monte, in A. Becchi, D. Bertoloni Meli, E. Gamba (eds.), Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607), p. 241-263
Becchi, A. 2013 Archimedes’ Bath, in G. Di Pasquale, C. Parisi Presicce (eds.), Archimedes. The Art and Science of Invention, Giunti, Florence 2013, p. 115-119
Becchi, A. 2013 Architectus omnibus armis ornatus. Sind die Waffen des Architekten nur Spielzeuge?, in Jahrbuch 2012, Braunschweigische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, J. Cramer Verlag, Braunschweig 2013, p. 215-225
Becchi, A. 2013 Looking for an equilibrium point: Wilson, Machiavelli and the King of Siam, in “Construction History. International Journal of the Construction History Society”, vol. 28, N. 3, 2013, p. 1-19
Becchi, A. 2014 Fokus: Die Gestalt der Säule, in J. Renn, W. Osthues, H. Schlimme (eds.), Wissensgeschichte der Architektur, Edition Open Access, Berlin 2014, vol. 3, p. 369-396
Becchi, A. 2014 Fokus: Architektur und Mechanik, in J. Renn, W. Osthues, H. Schlimme (eds.), Wissensgeschichte der Architektur, Edition Open Access, Berlin 2014, vol. 3, p. 397-428
Becchi, A. 2014 À Joël, le juste, in “Construction History. International Journal of the Construction History Society”, vol. 29, N. 1, 2014, p. ix-xi; also “Scholion”, 8, 2014, p. 177-179
Becchi, A. 2015 Vitruvius zu den Zeiten der reinen Vernunft: Giovanni Poleni, Simone Stratico und ihre Exercitationes, in U. Hassler (ed.), Der Lehrbuchdiskurs über das Bauen, Institut für Denkmalpflege und Bauforschung der ETH Zürich, Zürich 2015, p. 78-92
Becchi, A. 2015 Eugene Goostman et les pierres de Saint-Pétersbourg, in “Re-Vue Malaquais”, n. 2, 2015, p. 46-49
Becchi, A. 2015 Oltre la ‘Scientia de ponderibus’, in P. Caye, R. Nanni, P.D. Napolitani (eds.), Scienze e rappresentazioni: saggi in onore di Pierre Souffrin, Olschki, Florence, 2015, p. 389-403
Becchi, A. 2016 Drawing Proofs: lo sguardo cinematico di Robert Willis, in A. Buchanan, J.W.P. Campbell, J. Girón, S. Huerta (eds.), Robert Willis. Science, Technology and Architecture in the Nineteenth Century, Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid, 2016, p. 141-165
Becchi, A. 2016 Learning from falling stones: Autobiografie scientifiche between mechanics and architecture, in “Science et technique en perspective”, IIe série, vol. 18, fasc. 2, 2016, p. 3-18
Becchi, A. 2017 I commenti di Daniele Barbaro al Proemio della ’terza parte principale dell’Architettura’ (1556-1567), in F. Lemerle, V. Zara, P. Caye, L. Moretti (eds.), Daniele Barbaro 1514-1570, Brepols, Turnhout, 2017, p. 187-198
Becchi, A. 2017 La lezione di Salmacide: Vitruvio e il potere delle acque, in T.G. Schattner, F. Valdés Fernández (eds.), Wasserversorgung in Toledo und Wissensvermittlung von der Antike ins Mittelalter, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, Tübingen/Berlin, 2017, p. 371-385
Heaton, M.J. 2018 ’How medieval is a Medieval house: Whitestaunton Manort, Chard, Somerset?’, Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, 62, pp53-71 Case study analysis of the manner and extent to which a nominally medieval building incorporates in situ Roman masonry, medieval and post-medieval rebuilding and 17th - 18th century spolia. In particular, the article suggests that radical Non-Conformist owners in the early 18th century used spolia and faux-archaeological details to enhance their political and cultural legitimacy, in the same way that Catholic owners (in Britain) were in the 17th and 18th centuries. The article also identifies early 20th century use of salvaged decorative fabric that has, hitherto, been ascribed an early 17th century date on typological grounds, and warns of the danger of analysing such buildings on the basis of superficial fabric alone. Whitestaunton Elton Brett Hugyn spolia salvage in-situ re-building
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’They don’t build ’em like they used to: The defective flyers of Christchurch Priory’, CHS Newsletter, 84, pp6-7 A short article on observations made during geotechnical investigations at Christhchurch Priory in Dorset (GB), which revealed that the flying buttress of the 14th century Quire Aisles do not have any structural foundations. They are therefore largely cosmetic, and hence failing. This means that, contrary to received wisdom about the medieval builders’ empirical understanding of statics, the builders of this stage of the monastic church did not understand the function of flying buttresses and that, probably, the buttresses were added simply because it was fashionable to do so. statics flying buttresses christchurch foundations medieval quire dorset
Heaton, M.J. 2016 ’The Nave Roof at Holy Trinity Church, Warmell, Dorset’, The Construction Historian, 1, pp7-9 Case study analysis of a ’Scissor Brace’ truss roof added to the 13th C parish church of Warmell in c. 1750-1770 (dendro). Citing Yeomans (1992), the report concludes that this particular form of roof was first used in Britain in London in the late 17th C and that the knowledge transfer of the design to the West Country took c. 100 years. scissor brace truss dorset warmwell
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’Dunster Castle Roof’, CHS Newsletter, 86, pp2-5. Case study report and analysis of the roof structure of Dunster Castle near Minehead in Somerset. Assisted by dendrochronology, the report describes and identifies a primary lead-covered flat roof of c. 1617 that was re-engineered in 1722-8 by the addition of king posts and principal rafters. The jointing and other forms of connection are unusual, employing ’forelock’ bolts and large sprockets redolent of marine construction. Dunster roof king-post forelock bolt flat-roof lead
Heaton, M.J. 2008 ’Crinolines and scaffolding: The value of church records to the historical study of women in construction’, CHS Newsletter, 81, pp3-4 Case study report arising from the author’s examination of church archives for a Conservation Management Plan. 18th and 19th century archives held by Christchurch Priory record that a significant amount of the repair and rebuilding work commissioned by the church during the 18th and 19th centuries was undertaken by women acting as main contractors employing male tradesmen. Some of those women had inherited their companies from their deceased husbands, but not all of them had. More importantly, none appear in the civil records (trade directories, census etc.). The report concludes that, given the importance of the Church to pre-20th C British society, church records might be a more reliable indicator of female involvement in the construction industry than civil records. christchurch women contractors indemnities pews repair rebuilding
Heaton, M.J. and Davenport, P. 2003 ’A Late Medieval Timber Frame at Nos 21-22 High Street, Bath’, Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeol. & Natural History Soc., 146, pp73-79 Case study report on a 16th century timber framed building discovered during refurbishment of a superficially Georgian building in central Bath. The report describes the structure and summarises the documented history of the site. Unfortunately dendrochronology was not employed because the principal timbers are salvaged, so the structure is dated broadly to 1400-1600 typologically. The significance of the discovery is that it demonstrates that the Georgian ’re-building’ of Bath in the 18th century did not involve wholesale demolition of the pre-existing medieval and post-medieval building stock, as has hitherto been assumed. Similar, though not as complete, survivals have been noted elsewhere in central Bath Bath medieval facadism facade Georgian salvage
Andrew Rabeneck 2015 Industries of Architecture - "The place of architecture in the new economy" I offer a speculation on the future place of architecture in society. I explain the increasing marginalisation of design professionals in construction, based on trends that are already impinging on their daily experience of practice. These trends derive indirectly from the widespread deregulation of financial markets in the 1980s, and the subsequent political adoption of neoclassical libertarian economics around the world. In short, the free global movement of capital has irreversibly transformed the political economy of construction. To recapture pre-eminence in the evolving setting design professionals would need to radically change both their education and practice, but there is little chance that this will happen. Further marginalisation is inevitable globalisation, capital, professional education
Andrew Rabeneck 2011 CHS Journal Volume 26 - "Building for the future - schools fit for our children" This essay contrasts responses to post-war demand for school building first in Britain and later in America. In both cases modernist architects were primary actors, inspired by ideologies of pioneers such as Walter Gropius. They became instrumental in developing construction techniques involving educational innovation and prefabrication. In Britain’s centralised command economy, dominated by scarcity of resources, innovative organisations quickly collapsed when economic conditions changed. But in America, by goading industry to innovate in sustainable ways through the agency of a private foundation, idealistic architects achieved a lasting impact on the construction industry. Schools, post-war construction, prefabrication, Britain, USA.
Andrew Rabeneck 2012 ”The Transformation of Construction by Concrete", Nuts and Bolts of Construction History, proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Construction History, Paris,vol. 2, 627-635. In this paper I argue that concrete has played a critical role in the complete transformation of construction from a local demand-led craft to a global supply-led industry, a transformation not just of technique, but of labour processes and organisation. concrete, industrialisation, globalisation, concrete products
Theodossopoulos, D 2016 The catastrophic repairs of Holyrood Abbey church in 1760 The collapse of the significant church of Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in December 1768 is discussed as the result of the ill-conceived repair of the roof in 1760, i.e. the substitution of the timber trusses with closely-spaced diaphragm masonry walls that aggravated the delicate equilibrium of the vaults and the poor state of a building being mutilated over 250 years. This study interprets these repairs by demonstrating the authorship and partnership of the architect John Douglas with the mason-developer James McPherson, who combined architectural ambition (the aesthetics of a flagstone roof) with the (cheaper) option of diaphragms, which would not involve a wright. The detailed examination of the procurement, the process of the intervention, the collapse and the limited impact of its aftermath, are framed in a wider technical and historical context in Edinburgh and Scotland, during a period marked by several failures of medieval churches, and reveals a poor understanding of a critical element in Gothic construction. Analysis of all public archive material available sheds light on key events of the case, and critical study of the work of the two partners’ attempts to identify the intentions of their project, whose limitations were inevitable once the partnership was formed. Edinburgh; gothic; Holyrood; John Douglas; restoration; stone vaulting
Wermiel, S., 1993 The development of fireproof construction in Great Britain and the United States in the Nineteenth Century, Construction History, Vol 9, pp3-26 The authoritative study of the development of purposely fireproof structures and materials, mainly in industrial and commercial buildings, concentrating on the British and American industries fireproof fire-proof
Louw, H. 1993 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain from the late-eighteenth to the early twentieth century, and its practical, social and aesthetic implications. Part 2: Technological progress, c. 1860 to c. 1915, Construction History, Vol 9, pp27-50 Authoritative study of the machines, buildings and materials developed to facilitate the mechanical cutting and shaping of decorative joinery components; and the effects this had on the industry and its clients. Contains a large number of detailed images of 19th C woodworking machinery. joinery woodwork workshop
Steel, M.W., and Cheetham, D.W. 1993 Frank Bunker Gilbreth: Building contractor, inventor and pioneer industrial engineer, Construction History, VFol 9, pp51-70 The only published study of the working lives of Frank and Lilian Bunker Gilbreth, examining their application of Time and Motion studies and Scientific Management to the American construction industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Time and Motion Scientific Management Construction Management
Cooney, E.W. 1993 Productivity, Conflict and Order in the British construction industry: A historical view, Construction History, Vol 9, pp71-84 Study of the issues effecting productivity and labour-relations in the British construction industry to the late 20th century. Examines the changing structure of the industry and the legal, economic and social issues this ocassioned. conflict productivity relations contract law economics subcontracting
McWilliam, R.C. 1993 The Science Museum, the construction industry and a Grubenmann wooden bridge model, Construction History, Vol 9, pp85-88 A short article alerting readers to the contents of the Science Museum in London and its relevance to Construction History
Musgrave, Elizabeth, C., 1994 The organisation of the building trades of eastern Brittany 1600-1790: some observations, Construction History, VFol 10, pp1-16 France Brittany Trades Guilds
Shallat, T. 1994 Science and the Grand Design: origins of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Construction History, Vol 10, pp17-28 US USA Corps Engineers Simon Bernard Presque Isle
Booth, L.G. 1994 Henry Fuller’s glued laminated timber roof for Rusholme Road Congregational sunday school and other early timber roofs, Construction History, Vol 10, pp29-46 Glued Laminated Roofs Rusholme nineteenth century Fuller
Smith, N. A. F. 1994 The failure of the Bouzey Dam in 1895, Construction History, Vol 10, pp47-66 Epinal Dale Dyke Johnstown South Fork Dam Dams
Walker, A. 1994 Plastics: the building blocks of the twentieth century, Construction History, Vol 10, pp67-88 A study of the evolution, use and potential of plastics for the construction industry plastic Baekeland Swinburn Staudinger Carothers DuPont
Penn, R., Wild, S., and Mascarennas, J. 1995 The Pomboline Quarter of Lisbon: an eighteenth century example of prefabrication and dimensional co-ordination. Construction History, Vol 1, pp3-18 Portugal earthquake alluvium Monteiro Maia
Harper, R. 1995 The building of the Cutlers’ Hall, Sheffield, 1830-34. Construction History, Vol 11, pp19-32 Worth Taylor Laycock contracts contractor
Skempton, A.W. 1995 Embankments and cuttings on early railways, Construction History, Vol 11, pp33-50 excavation management end-tipping horse-runs side-cutting slips volumetric analysis cuttings failure
Louw, H. 1995 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork from the late eighteenth century to the early twentieth century, nd its practical, social and aesthetic implications Part III: the retreat of the handicrafts.Construction History, Vol 11, pp51-72 The third of four articles dealing with this important subject, concentrating on the advance of machinery in the marketplace and in the workplace. joinery machinery windows doors skirtings
Trepetina, N.V. 1995 The archives of the St Petersburg Institute of the Corps of Communications Engineers, Construction History, Vol 11, pp73-80 Betancourt Bazaine Potue Mongeo Fabr
Weiler, J,. 1996 Colonial connections: Royal Engineers and building technology transfer in the nineteenth century, Construction History, Vol 12, pp3-18 military ordnance Pasley Smith Vicat Macleod Cotton India Australia Canada Barlow Bridges prefabrication tropics barracks empire
Louw, H. 1996 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain from th elate eighteenth century to the early twentieth century, and its practical, social and aesthetic implications. Part IV: the end of an era. Construction History, Vol 12, pp19-40 artist marketplace machinery craft
Federov, S.G. 1996 Early iron domed roofs in Russian church architecture: 1800-1840. Construction History, Vol 12, pp41-66 St Petersburg Kazan St Isaac dome
Cody, J.W. 1996 Erecting monuments to the god of business and trade: the Fuller Construction Company of the Orient, 1919-1926. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 67-82 Japan China Wheeler Capron Holt
Ruddock, E. 1996 Charles Holden and the issue of high buildings-London, 1927-47. London’d highest buildings, 1927-1938: 55 Broadway and Senate House. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 83-100 tall buildings
Atkinson, G. 1996 Though during the Building Research Establishment’s 75th anniversary. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 101-108 BRE privatisation BRS
Day, T. 1997 Did Telford rely, in northern Scotland, on vigilant inspectors or competent contractors?. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 3-16 contracts contract management Burn Minto bridges roads
Brooke, D. 1997 William Mackenzie and railways in France. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 17-28 Brassey Mackenzie Locke canals organisation plant profits
Lucas, R. 1997 The tax on bricks and tiles, 1784-1850: its application to the country at large and, in particular, to the county of Norfolk. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 29-56 bricks tiles tax Georgian 18th century England
Cox, A. 1997 A vital component: stock bricks in Georgian London. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 56-66 stock bricks Georgian London 18th
Booth, L.G. 1997 The design and construction of timber paraboloid sheel roofs in Britain: 1957-1975. Construction History, Vol 13, pp67-90 timber shell roof TDA TRADA hyperbolic paraboloid Newsum
Spencer-Silver, P. 1997 William Edwin Jackson’s cashbook: Part 1, 1845-1847. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 91-115 Pugin
Mendel, R. 1998 Craft labour and the development of trade unionism among building tradesmen in late nineteenth century New York. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 3-20 America USA sub-contracting technological innovation strikes industrial action
Jackson, A. A. 1998 The development of steel framed buildings in Britain 1880-1905. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 21-40 Ritz hotel industrial market street store Dublin railway Waterhouse Midland hotel
Radford, D. 1998 The early history of the tall building in South African city. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 41-58 Cape Town
Yeomans, D. 1998 The pre-history of the curtain wall. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 59-82 Crystal Palace Baumann Reliance Chicago glass factories commercial Davison Alcoa Equitable
Cooney, E.W. 1998 Eighteenth century Britain’s missing sawmills: a return visit. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 83-88 Limehouse Dingley Stansfield Dossie Dutch sawyer shipbuilding Spey Netherlands Holland Zaanstrek
Spencer-Silver, P. 1998 William Edwin Jackson’s cashbook: Part 2, 1848-1849. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 89-112
Powell, C. 1999 Cobling and Helling: a Georgian building firm at work. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 3-14 Firm firms Georgian Crediton Devon Prawl
Woodley, R. 1999 Professionals: early episodes among architects and engineers.Construction History, Vol 15, pp 15-22 Mylne Smeaton Blackfriar’s bridge
Anderson, J. 1999 Urban development as a component of government policy in the aftermath of the Napoleonic War.Construction History, Vol 15, pp 23-38 WFLR Fordyce revenue Georgian Britain Nash
Lorenz, W. 1999 Classicism and High Technology- the Berlin Neues Museum. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 39-56 Prussia Preussen Borsig Beauth Egells Christian Conrad
Yarwood, J.R. 1999 Traditional building construction in an historic Arabian town. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 57-78 Al Muharraq Bahrain diffusion Rivoyre coral materials arches doors stairs climate sanitation
Ashby, J. 1999 The aluminium legacy: the history of the metal and its role in architecture. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 79-90 aluminium casting
Guo, Quinghua 2000 Tile and brick making in China: a study of the Yingzao Fashi. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 3-12 China brick tile Yingzao Fashi Zhou quinggun Tiangong Kaiwu Song
Pepper, S. 2000 Sword and spade: military construction in Renaissance Italy. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 13-32 Brunelleschi vinci martini durer michelangelo taccola Lucca Giorgio Sarzana Siennas
Clarke, J. 2000 Material concerns in the Pacific Northwest: steel versus reinforced concrete in highway bridge design in Washington State, 1910-1930. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 33-62 America USA Melan Baker river bridge Columbia truss chehalis
Dunster, D. 2000 Financing and building Wacker Drive, Chicago. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 63-76 America USA Michigan urban planning tall building
Cross-Rudkin, P. 2000 Professional lives: compiling the Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 77-87
Walker, A. 2000 Historical influences on th euse of cement in Mexican domestic construction. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 87-99 Mexico domestic house casa promotion
Guo, Quighua 2001 The formation and early development of architecture in northern China. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 3-16 Meng Zi Tang dynasty Yaodong houses domestic
Campbell, J.W.P., and Saint, A. 2001 A bibliography of works on brick published in England before 1750.Construction History, Vol 17, pp 17-30 manuals mensuration pricing Ive Wotton Willsford Brown Gerbier Primatt Leybourn Hammond Woolridge Wolridge Coggeshall Foster Plot Mandey Houghton Barker Wing Moxon Neve Roman Coehoorn Aldrich Morton Hawney Good halfpenny Langley Chambers Rowland Salmon
Smith, T.P. 2001 On small yellow bricks ....from Holland. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 31-42 klinker klinkaert Ijsselstenen Netherlands
Wermiel, S.E. 2001 An unusual application of wire cables from the 1850s: Benjamin Severson’s wire-tied iron girders. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 43-54 America USA trussed girder
Lorenz, W., and Rohde, A. 2001 Building with iron in nineteenth century Bavaria: the Valhalla roof truss and its architect Leo von Klenze. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 55-76 Regensburg Schinkel Munich Befreiungshalle Kelheim
Gould, M.H. 2001 A historical perspective on the Belfast roof truss. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 75-89 bowstring Steppings Delorme Libourne Anderson
Locock, M. 1992 The development of the building trades in the West Midlands, 1400-1850.Construction History, Vol 8, pp 3-20 medieval post-medieval
Louw, H. 1992 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain Part 1. The period c. 1790-c. 1860.Construction History, Vol 8, pp 21-55 joinery machinery windows doors skirting
Jackson, N. 1992 Views with a room: taxation and the return of the bay window to the third rate speculative houses of mid nineteenth-century London. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 55-68 terraced rates rated tax taxation
Federov, S.G. 1992 Matthew Clark and the origins of Russian structural engineering 1810-40s: an introductory biography. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 69-88 Russia Alexandrovskij St Petersburg Aleksandrinskij iron roofs theatre
Smith, S. 2001 The design of structural ironwork 1850-1890: Education, Theory and Practice. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 89-108 specialisation McQuorne Rankine
Portman, D.R. 2002 A business history of the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 3-20 Bristol gorge Smyth Brunel estimates funding speculative Hawkshaw Barlow
Hurst, L. 2002 The properties and uses of Portland Cement. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 21-36 Roman creasing drainage sewers waterproof hydraulic Parker Smirke Smeaton masonry brickwork civil
Clarke, J. 2002 Like a huge birdcage exhaled from the earth: Watson’s Esplanade Hotel, Mumbai (1867-71) and its place in Structural History. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 37-78 India Raj
Tappin, S. 2002 The early use of reinforced concrete in India. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 79-98
Vale, B., and Richmond, P. 2002 The English at Point England. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 99-110. A study of the mass introduction of pre-fabricated timber houses to New Zealand in the mid 20th century pre-fabricated houses Australia Auckland kitset Simms Cooke import
Mainstone, R. 2003 Saving the dome of St Peter’s. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 3-18 Study of 18th C structural repair of the dome of St Peter’s church at Rome Rome St Peter’s Bramante Vanvitelli eighteenth century Parere Poleni Riflessioni Aggiunta mathematicians
Louw, H. 2005 The windows of perrault’s Observatory in Paris (1667-1683): the legacy of a proto-modern architectural inventor. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 19-46
Yeomans, D. 2005 Soane and Swiss bridges. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 47-64 Switzerland Shaffhausen Grubenmann Richenau Wettingen trestle arch Hangewerke Haengewerke trusses
Trout, E.A.R 2005 Concrete Publications Ltd and its legacy to the concrete industry. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 65-86 One of several studies of the specialist publisher Concrete Publications Ltd Sachs Twentieth century Faber Childe
Gallo, E. 2005 Skyscrapers and district heating, an inter-related history 1876-1933. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 87-106 Examines the inter-dependency of skyscrapers and ’district heating’ systems in America America US Birdsill Holly
Swenarton, M. 2005 Rammed earth revival: technological innovation and government policy in Britain, 1905-1925. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 107-126 Study of the British government’s investigation of the economics and practicalities of using chalk as a building material for mass housing in the early 20th C. Amesbury Wiltshire chalk cob pise chalk and clay rammed earth
Guo, Quinghua 2004 From tower to pagoda: structural and technological transition. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 3-20. Han Qing gua xie que lou ge Shouwen Jiezi Buddhism Yingzao fashi diantang tingtang pingzuo chanzhu zao chazhu zao
Campbell, J.W.P. 2004 Nicholas Hawksmoor’s building notebook. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 21-44
Brindle, S., and Tucker, M. 2004 Brunel’s lost bridge: the rediscovery and salvage of the Bishops Road Canal Bridge, Paddington. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 45-70 GWR
Portman, D.R. 2004 Henry Marc Brunel - civil engineer. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 71-84 Armstrong Brunel Channel tunnel Froude Wolfe Barry Tower Bridge
Alegre, A., and Heitor, T. 2004 Flexibility in the first generation of reinforced concrete housing: a public housing estate in Lisbon. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 85-94 Portugal alvalade
Picon, A. 2006 Construction History: between technological and cultural history. Construction History, Vol 21, pp 5-20 Historiographical essay
Saint, A. 2006 Architect and engineer: a study in construction history. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 21-30 historiographical essay
Lorenz, W. 2006 From stories to history, from history to histories: what can construction history do ? Construction History, Vol 20, pp 31-42 Historiographical essay
Clarke, J. 2006 Cones, not domes: John Nash and regency structural innovation. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 43-64 Rotunda artillery Carlton House Polygon room woolwich
Yeomans, D. 2006 The behaviour of the structure. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 65-68
Swenarton, M. 2006 Breeze blocks and Bolshevism: housing policy and the origins of the Building Research Station 1917-21. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 69-80 BRE BRS
Federov, S.G. 2006 Construction History in the Soviet Union-Russia: 1930-2005 Emergence, Development and Disappearance of a technical discipline. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 81-99
Hiskey, C. 2007 Palladian and Practical: Country house technology at Holkham Hall. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 3-26 services sanitation 18th C eighteenth laundry sewers drains heating kitchen lighting fire communications
Wells, J.C. 2007 A history of structural hollow clay tile in the United States. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 27-46 fire-proof
Ramage, M. 2007 Guastavino’s vault construction revisited. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 47-60 timbrel vaulting bovedas tabicadas shell
Harris, G. 2007 Ove Arup and box frame construction. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 61-74.
Bullock, N. 2007 You assemble a lorry, but you build a house. Noisy-le-sec and the French debate on industrial housing 1944-49. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 75-96 MRU modernisation pre-fabrication AIROH
Jones, B., Sereni, A., and Ricci, M. 2008 Building Brunelleschi’s dome: a practical methodology verified by experiment. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 3-30 Experimental archaeology examining how the dome was constructed without formwork Florence Duomo Fiore octagonal ribs herringbone bricks
Holzer, S. 2008 Structural iron elements in German timber roofs (1600-1800). Construction History, Vol 23 pp 33-58
Bullock, N. 2008 20,000 dwellings a month for forty years: France’s industrialised housing sector in the 1950s. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 59-76
Van de Voorde, S., and Meyer, R., 2007 On the interface between architecture, engineering and technology. Two case studies in concrete construction in Belgium. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 77-98 preflex beam Zuidertoren Sculpture House
Pepper, S. and Richmond, P. 2008 Cottages, flats and reconditioning: renewal strategies in London after World War One. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 99-118 LCC Tabard housing
Lancaster, L. 2009 Terracotta vaulting tubes in Roman architecture: a case study of the interrelationship between technologies and trade in the Mediterranean. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 3-18
Mainstone, R. 2009 Brunelleschi’s dome revisited. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 19-30
Gomez-Ferrer, M. 2009 The origins of tile vaulting in Valencia. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 31-44 Spain 16th C sixteenth vaulting
Osborne, R. 2009 Cast iron windows in Anglican churches in England 1791-1840.Construction History, Vol 24 pp 45-62
Anderson, J. 2009 The operation of the early nineteenth century property market. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 63-82 The definitive article on how the speculative developments of London and other British cities was funded and executed. ground rents agreements leases market landowner developer contractor attorney investor funding investment lease building-lease monetization
Isaacs, N. 2009 Nails in New Zealand 1770 to 1910. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 83-103
Devos, R., and Flore, F., 2009 Modern wood. De Coene at Expo 58. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 103-120
Wenzel, F., 2010 Investigations into the construction and repair history of the Hagia Sophia. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 1-20 Bauforschung geophysics radar tomography buildings archaeology Turkey
Sinopoli, A. 2010 No tension behaviour and best shape of pseudo-vaults. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 21-52 analysis of the structural behaviour of prehistoric, medieval, renaissance and modern vaults in the mediterranean
Thom, C. 2010 Fine veneers, army boots and tinfoil: new light on Marc Isambard Brunel’s activities in Battersea. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 53-68
Leslie, T. 2010 ’Built mostly of itself’: The Chicago brick industry and the masonry skyscraper in the late 19th century. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 69-84
Bowen, B. 2010 The building of the British Westinghouse Electricv and manufacturing plant, Trafford Park, Manchester, 1901-2: an early example of transatlantic co-operation in construction management .Construction History, Vol 25, pp85-100
Sutherland, J. 2010 Revival of structural timber in Britain after 1945. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 101-114
Deregibus, C., and Pugnale, A. 2010 The church of Longuelo by Pino Pizzigoni: design and construction of an experimental structure. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 115-140
Bertels, I. 2011 Building contractors in late nineteenth century Belgium: from craftsmen to contractors. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 1-18 The search for the best contractor, from a qualitative and/or economic perspective, became a quest for several clients andn designers in the course of the nineteenth century. In 1879, Ernest Allard (1849-1898) formulated the frustrations of a broad group of architects in ’L’Emulation’, Belgium’s leading architectural periodical at that time, and complained about the standardisation of the building process and the many ’misinterpretations’ contractors made when putting their design into practice. Opposition forces defending the building contractors have limited presence within architectural historiography. This article examines, via the concept of professionalisation, elementary aspects, such as contractors’ professional juridical position, their search for appropriate applied training, and their professional networking and demonstrates how part of this specific group of builders, those who were active in public works, can be defined and evolved within the late 19th C Belgian context. The article shows how, within a dialetical process with related professions, including architects and engineers, contractors gradually obtained strictly defined positions and job responsibilities, but also their personal social and legal status, organisation and knowledge. For this growing group of contractors the 19th C became an important lynchpin between traditional organisations, namely guilds and trades and modern building organisation. contractorsd buildinging organisation technical education Belgium 19th century
Schoenefeldt, H. 2011 The use of scientific experimentation in developing the glazing of the Palm House at Kew. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 19-40 This paper investigates the role of scientific experimentation in the design development of the Palm House at the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, designed and constructed in 1844-48. It focuses on the cross-disciplinary design process underlying development of a special light-filtering glass that was adopted for protecting the tropical plants from the solar radiation transmitted by the highly transparent glass skin. To validate the performance of the glass, the design team was not only dependent on the study of the optical and chemical properties of the glass, but also relied on scientific research into the effect of natural light on the physiology of plants. Kew commissioned the scientist Robert Hunt to conduct a series of scientific experiments, first to specify the right tint and to assist the glass manufacturer in producing a glass with the required properties. The final section discusses the performance history of the glazing as a solar control strategy. Glass, lighting, Palm House, botanic gardens, internal envuironment, experimentation.
Morice, P. 2011 A sketch of Wexham Springs history: the early years of the Cement and Concrete Association, 1948-58. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 41-55 The paper records the early history of Wexham Springs, the research station of the Cement and Concrete Association. The author was the Head of the Structures Department from 1948during its first ten years, when topics of particualr interest were pre-stressed concrete and shell roofs. Residential training courses on pre-stressing for professional engineers were introduced in `1950 as part of the Research Station’s responsibilities. The paper is necessarily biased towards the structures aspect of the research station’s activities. concrete researc, pre-stressed concrete, prestressed concrete, structural engineering, stuctural models, bridge tests.
Guillerme, A. 2011 Enclosing nature in the City: supplying light and water to Paris 1770-1840. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 79-94 Between 1770 and 1840, there was a new emphasis on material comfort in the life of France’s growing middle classes, provided in urban areas by innovation in heating, lighting and water supply. Old techniques were greatly improved by the application of science and the development of new technologies that reduced the need for human work and energy consumption. These technologies also gave birth to new crafts and new industries. For the first time, metal piping was used extensively beneath the public realm of the city, the rapidly developing streets and squares of Paris. The novel ability to transport liquids, through what civil engineers came to define as the new applied science of the network, began the liberation of the city from its old dependence on the natural environment. Paris, 18th century, 19th century, heating, lighting, potable water, drainage, sewers, public utilities, networks.
Tain-Guzman, M., Alonso-Rodriguez, M., Calvo-Lopez 2012 Stonecutters’ literature and construction practice in Early Modern Gothic: the tracings for a rib vault at the Cathedral of Tui in Galicia. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 1-22 According to the manuscript of Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon, written about 1550, late Gothic builders used full-size traci8ngs o9f rib vaults in order to control the placement of the voussoirs of these vaults. No 16th C tracing for a rib vault has been preserved in the Iberian Peninsula, as far as we know; however, a tracing is preserved on the floor of Saint Catherine’s Chapel in Tui cathedral, resembling closely the rib vaults in the cathedral’s sacristy. The chapel underwent a thorough renovatuion between 1707 and `1710; thus, ther tracing was, quite probably prepared in connection with the refurbishment of the Sacristy vaults in 1709. Building on surveys odf the tracing tha vaults, the authors discuss the degree of coincidence between the tracing and the vaults and other issues such as functional, non-representative character of these tracings and the subtle difference s i napproach between treatises or manuscripts and actual building practice. rib vaulting, tracing, building construction, stereotomy, stonecutting.
Lewis, M. 2012 Iron lighthouses. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 23-64 Iron lighthouse construction in the 19th C is interesting, both for the logistical and engineering issues involved, and as a specialised field of prefabrication. It involves some of the major prefabricators of the period , though it does not involve mass-production. Two main forms of lighthouse can be distinguished -openwork and solid trunk- together with numerous hybrids. Experimental examples were built in Britain, after which an expoprt trade developed and Britain dominated the international market. The US imported some British lighthouses before developing its own manufacturing and exporting capabilities. By the end of the 19th C most countries that had been major importers had begun to manufacture their own, and the early 20th C the iron solid trunk lighthouse had given way entirely to the concrete version. lighthouse, beacon, prefabrication, cast iron, wrought iron, nineteenth century.
Mandel, M. and Orro, O. 2012 The marvellous reinforced concrete shells of Tallinn seaplane hangars in the context of early concerete architecture in Estonia. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 65-86 The reinforced-concrete sheell roof of the seaplane hangars at Tallinn designed and built in 1916-17 by the Danish company Christiani & Nielsen, is the most outstanding and famous early reinforced-concrete structure in Estonia, and is worthy of international recognition. The structure was outstanding in its time, due to both its geometry and the method of design calculations used. For many years the building was abandoned and almost forgotten, but after successful renovation and re-opening as a museum in 2011, it has gained much attention from a wider audience. The paper presents a detailed review of its design and construction process, and also provides some observations about its more recent history, reputation and renovation. The hangars are put into a wider context by introducing some other early Russian military concrete constructions in Estonia, as well as their place in local history of reinfo9rced concrete in general, especially other works by C&N. reinforced concrete, shell structure, military architecture, estonia, Christiani & Nielsen, 20th Century
Moe, K. 2012 Insulating North America. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 87-106 The insights and oversights evident in the development of insulation in North America have had a profound impact on the practices, pedagogies and performance of modern buildings in that country. From the earliest scientific observations to contemporary energy codes, this paper discusses the roles of the respective agents inherent in the technological momentum of modern insulation practices: architects, engineers, scientists, marketing and consumers. Central to this discussion is the undue historical preoccupation with certain modes of energy at the price of others: namely as preoccupation with conduction, as measured by the thermal resistance - or R-value- of a material (used in the USA) or its reciprocal (under certain circumstances) the conductivity of the material, or U-value (used in the UK). On account of this preoccupation, North American insulation theories and practices themselves became insulated from a range of adjacent possibilities and, at times, even from the full understanding of heat transfer in buildings. The assumptions embedded in this narrative of technological momentum continued 0 largely unquestioned- into ther 21st C as manifest in bureaucratic standards, codes, and checklists that frequently characterize the tiopic of building performance. In this way, insulation is positioned in this text as anything but a neutralizing and isolating component in a building envelope. Rather, insulation became a highly active physical, conceptual and historical agent in the habits of 20th C building design and its associated construction practices. insulation, modernism, conductivity, diffusivity, builsding performance, USA
Urbano-Gutierrez, R. 2012 Pierre, revoir tout le systeme fenetres: Corbusier and the development of glazing and air-conditioning technolkogy with the Mur Neutralisant (1928-33). Construction History, Vol 27, pp 107-129 Le Corbusier (1887-1965) became involved in the creation of a good number of artefacts throughout his career, many of them patented and developed in collaboration with the building industry. His ’mur neutralisant’ (1928) formed part of an extensive set of emergent propositions to integrate systems of artificial climate into architectural components. The invention as an early prototype of a double-skin facade which included an air-conditioning circuit to improve comfort and energy efficiency thanks to an optimised insulating performance. The system envisioned in any material, but it was the version that included a double-skin facade that became instrumental in backing up one of his most important design elements, le pan de verre (glass curtain wall). Reference to this invention repeatedly focus on a limited number of facts, providing only a partial understanding of its physical definition, performance and developmental context. In order to provide a holistic understanding of the concept of the mur neutrilisant, this paper follows its development as well as th ekey role this element played in some of his most celebrated buildings of that period. Le Corbusier, mur neutrilisant, respiration exacte, double-skin facades, air-conditioning.
Marino, G. 2012 Steel, aluminium, plastic: the ’unbearable lightness’ of architectural modernity. The Centrale d’Allocations Familiales building of the XVth Arrondissement in Pars (1953-1959). Construction History, Vol 27, pp129-152 The Caisse Centrale d’Allocations Familiales de la Region Parisiene (CCAFRP or CAF) was built between 1953 and 1959 as regional headquarters of a new post-war agency, the Central Fund for Family Allowance. Designed by French architects Raymond Lopez (1904-1966) and Michel Holley (b. 1924), it was a work of enlightened modernity, in which the architects broke new ground i terms of urban concept, structural design, engineering and specification. A spectacular steel frame supported facades of tubular aluminium sections, with translucent panels of reinforced polyester infill. The CAF would be the talk of the town , hailed by the press as a ’world first’ in its assertive, not to say militant deployment of the most innovative technical and constructional solutions. One can argue that in the CAF, technical innovation was more than just the guiding principle of the design - that it became in effect the essence of a truyly new paradigm in modern architecture Technical innovation, France, 1950s, steel frame, curtain wall, reinforced plastics, Raymond Lopez.
Heinzelmann, D., Heinzelmann, M., & Lorenz, W. 2018 The metal roof truss of the Pantheon’s portico in Rome - 152 tonnes of bronze. Construction History, Vol 33 No 2, pp 1-22 By order of Pope Urban VIII in 1625, the ancient bronze roof structure over the portico of the Pantheon in Rome was demolished and melted down for canons. So, after 1,500 years, this remarkable witness to Roman engineering, and the only known example of a completely metal structure built prior to the modern age, disappeared. An interdisciplinary research team is now reconstructing this extraordinary roof structure and how it fits into the history of the Pantheon’s construction. They have collected all the relevant sources and findings: drawings and writings of earlier architects, archival documents, describing the weight and form of the bronze removed from the roof, the only remaining rivet in the Antikensammlung Berlin and, very importantly, the survey of the Pantheon itself, which reveals traces of the original roof structure. Structural calculations, copies of original castings and tensile/shear tests verify the archaeological reconstruction. Furthermore, the rebuilding of one joint at full size enabled important conclusions to be drawn regarding the jointing method. Owing to this project, it can be presumed that Roman engineers built a 152 tonne roof structure entirely in bronze long before the first iron structures of the industrial age. Rome, Pantheon, metal truss, roof structure, bronze, rivet, Borromini, 2nd century CE
Markley, S. 2018 The ’Unseen Seen’- earth mortared stone construction, a re-illuminated historic construction technique in Britain. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 23-42 Earth mortars, and significantly, earth mortared stone construction has largely been overlooked in the archaeological and historic building record in the UK and Ireland to date. The use of earth mortared stone construction is proven in primary building accounts in England dating to the later medieval period. Wider research across Britain and Ireland has shown that it represents a vernacular building technique present from prehistory to the post-medieval period. It is noted in high and low status buildings and it is evident in all building categories such as ecclesiastical, domestic, agricultural, defensive, industrial, infrastructural and public. However, the descriptive terms used in the recording of earth mortar in published and unpublished literature in Ireland and Britain, negatively portrays it presence, indicating its poor acceptance, interpretation and recognition. This factor is persistently hindering its understanding as a durable material of construction and masking its wider acknowledgement as a historic construction technique in resulting building interpretations. This paper highlights the use of negative terminologies characterising the use of earth mortars in stone construction in Britain, which has resulted in its presence being overlooked and alternative methods of construction being prescribed. This has resulted in the consistent lack of recognition of earth mortared stone construction as a ubiquitouos and significant historic building technique. This paper demonstrates that earth, much like lime, was equally used as a mortar in stone construction through history. Earth mortar, stone construction, building technique, prehistory, medieval
Thorne, R. 2018 The rebuilding of the Crystal Palace 1851-54: Permanent and better ?. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 43-62 The rebuilding of the Crystal Palace in south London gave the team headed by Joseph Paxton the opportunity to turn a temporary exhibition building into a permanent work of architecture. Although a large number of component parts from the original building were reused, the design was re-thought for a new kind of multiple use. Structurally it was just as innovative as its predecessor, especially in the design of its arched transepts and nave. The rebuilding was fraught with difficulties and far outran the first cost estimates. Building accidents during the works showed that aspects of the design had overstepped the limits of contemporary engineering knowledge. Ultimately it was not as influential in architectural terms as some had hoped, but it advanced construction thinking in ways that had not been foreseen. Building failure, building, regulation, Crystal palace, indeterminate structures, iron roofs, prefabrication, temporary works.
Coomans, T. 2018 East meets West on the construction site. Churches in China, 1840s-1930s. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 63-84 The construction of missionary churches in China in the 1840s-1930s was in many cases the first encounter between two great and completely different building systems: the Chinese and the European. Architectural transfers of forms and technical knowledge happened on the construction sites and resulted in a creative variety of more or less hybridised buildings and styles. This original contribution to the process of modernisation of architecture and construction in China is an important, yet still unrecognised, moment, both in mission history and global architectural history. This article considers the construction site as a ’laboratory’ and focuses on the role of mediators (architects, missionary builders, Chinese middlemen, contractors, craftsmen, etc.) and the process of hybridisation or translation of terminologies, forms, techniques etc. Who were the missionary builders? What were their networks ?n How did they perceive Chinese workers ? How were Western styles transplanted to China. What were the differences between construction works in foreign concession territories, big cities, small cities and the countryside? Furthermore, the article contextualises the three phases of the evolution of church building - 1840s to 1900, 1900 to 1920, 1920s to 1930s - in relation to the transformation of the Chinese society on the path to modernity. China, christian missions, chu7rches, construyction works, cross-cultural transfer of knowledge, hybridisation, missionary architects and brother-builders, 19th C
Iori, T., and Poretti, S. 2018 The rise and decline of the Italian school of engineering. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 85-108 This paper tells the story behind the origin, rise and sudden disappearance of the Italian school of engineering in the 20th C. It was not an academic institution, but a movement that produced an extraordinary heritage of big structures. It was a golden age: by the mid Sixties, Italian structural engineering was recognised as one of the most prestigious in the world. However, just after the economic miracle, the school suddenly ceased to exist, and it has been completely forgotten, even by historiography. Some of the leading figures are well-known - Per Luigi Nervi, Riccardo Morandi and Sergio Musmeci - but the school was the result of a more complex adventure undertaken by two generations of scientist, designers, contractors and builders. The SIXXI research (XX Century Structural Engineering: the Italian Contribution) funded by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant, was developed with the aim of tracing and telling that story to engineers, architects and everyone. In the paper, the story is presented as a two-voice story: the first narrative voice tells about events, individual works, construction sites, significant episodes. The second voice (in italics) connects them to the unfolding of the entire affair. The text is dedicated to the 43 victims of the collapse of the bridge over the Polcevera in Genoa on 14th August 2018. SIXXI, history of structural engineering, 20th C, Italy
Harrer, A. 2018 Simplicity and sophistication: the fan-shaped bracketing of the Temple of the Two Transcendents in Xiaohui and the Monastery of Exalted Happiness in Shuozhou (11th and 12th century). Construction History Vol.33 No.1, pp1-26 The paper explores the practical solutions provided by a highly idiosyncratic type pf bracket-block clusters known as a ’fan-shaped bracket set’ from the central Chinese province of Shanxi where timber technology and craftsmanship became a symbolic means of expression. The simplicity and sophistication in design, as exemplified by the two case study buildings, reflect an architectural tradition that is governed by rituals and rules of propriety and creates a spectrum of shapes in response to social status and genius loci. Using the principle of the ’unity of opposites’ - the non-duality of plain beauty and striking beauty - proves helpful in explaining the message hidden within the timber construction of both main halls. If stripped of their distinct local qualities, a still-popular regional construction technique with bracket-arms projecting not only at 90 degress but also at 45 degrees to the wall plane reveals itself as having evolved beyond political boundaries and written rules such that its design exhibits flexibility and and individual artistic expression. bracket set, dougong, fan-shape, angular design, carpentry, shanxi province, imperial China, rituals, adaptability
Monteiro Genin, S. 2018 Form, design and construction of ribbed vaults. Joao de Castilho’s innovations in the Jeronimos Monastery, Lisbon (1470-1552). Construction History, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp 27-48 The vaults of the Jeronimos Monastery church in Lisbon are a remarkable example of late Gothic architecture. Their span and continuous form achieve the goal of spatial unity sought after across Europe at the time. A single barrel vault covers the nave and the side aisles, while the transept is the largest built at the time. No other simialr vaults could be found (by the author ?) amongst about a thousand European vaults. This paper stems from PhD research (Genin, S. 2014) and concerns the issue of form: how was form created, acknowledging that it draws directly from principles for its design and construction. Shaping a unified vault with a single curved rib ridge line and central figure is Castilho’s (c. 1470-1552) most remarkable innovation. The span of the vault is broadened through the use of ’compound ribs’, a new typology created in this research. The author observed the methods used at the time to understand Joao de Castilho’s vault design, and put forward design and construction hypotheses for each type of vault. This method demonstrates that it was possible to build vaults without preliminary drawings, using multiple, standardised ribs. The only requirement was to follow a sequence to position the centrings, using Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon’s method. Ribbed vaults, form, design and construction, Joao de Castilho, Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon, Santa Maria de Belem church, Jeronimos Monastery, Portugal, Europe, Manueline, Late Gothic, 16th century.
Pinto, S.M.G. 2018 Behaviours and procedures used by construction agents of ordinary buildings in Portugal during the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period: rules, regulations and controls. Construction History, Vol 33 No. 1, pp 49-68 This construction agents considered are developers, builders and supervisors, that is, respectively, property owners, master masons and carpenters, and municipal and guild officials responsible for verifying and supervising the construction activity. It focuses on the builders’ hiring types; on the regulations established by supervisors for the builders’ activity in terms of price-fixing for services and building materials, and ih access to the profession; on the supervisors control during construction according to the legal norms defined by municipal ordinances and guild regulations; and on the administrative procedures established by the supervisors for the aforementioned control to be fulfilled by developers and builders. For this purpose, a set of documentary sources from several towns and institutions are used. Portugal, hiring, ordinance, municipal, rules, regulations, controls, developers, builders, supervisors, late Middle Ages, Early Modern
Drioueche-Djaalali, N.K., and Chabbi-Chemrouk, N. 2017 Traditional construction techniques of domes in the Kasbah of Algiers (1500-1800), Construction History, Vol. 32 No.2, pp 1-18. Examines the traditional construction techniques used in the Kasbah of Algiers and specifically those used in the Ottoman period. A computer model was used to analyse these traditional structures and identify their critical sections. The analysis demonstrates the ingenuity and intelligence of the dome builders, who were constantly searching for new, more efficient solutions. The design and construction of the domes was improved over several periods. Algerian, Algeria, Kasbah, cupolas, computer modelling, sustainable construction, traditional construction processes, knowledge transfer, Ottoman period, 16th -19th century.
Dobbels, J., Bertels, I., and Wouters, I. 2017 The general contractor, the architect and the engineer. The contractors’ path to become professional building practitioners in Belgium (1870-1960), Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp19-38. The paper analyses four general contractors’ periodicals in order to sketch the professionalisation of Belgian general contractors claiming their new position as organisers and executors of construction and their interprofessional interaction with architects and engineers. The content and context of the periodicals is described and they are placed within the broad international research context of contemporaneous construction related periodicals. It becomes clear that it took a very long time to capture the gradual shift of tasks legally. The slow adaptation of the legislative context gave rise to many conflicts about job responsibilities, but collaborative actions were undertaken by the joint arbitration committees for construction related disputes. This allows us to conclude that the main agency of resolution was conversation. General contractors, Belgium, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, professionalisation, professional periodicals interprofessional relationships.
Trout, A.R. 2017 Concrete Air Raid Shelters, 1935-1941: A study of the British cement industry’s influence on public policy. Construction History, Vol, 32 No. 2, pp83-108 The paper assesses the British cement industry’s intervention in just one aspect of the UK’s preparations for war, one that combined commercial self-interest with an impressive contribution to the collective war effort. Founded in 1935, the Cement & Concrete Association was quick to identify air raid protection as a matter of national importance in which its members could have a beneficial interest and, as the Abyssinian Crisis and Spanish Civil War unfolded, undertook a huge publicity campaign combined with concerted efforts to influence public policy. Exploring foreign precedents, the association turned to developing designs for air raid shelters, and technical training for the authorities charged with their installation. Then in 1939 the cement industry placed the resources of its Association at the government’s disposal for the duration.Engineering also took up the advocacy of concrete shelters, published guidance and reported on uptake. By 1940 Britain was better prepared for the Blitz than would have been the case had the task been left to wavering government, and these early efforts to harness the cement industry to defence purposes honed its ability to deliver aerodromes, hutted camps and Mulbery Harbours later in the war. Bombs, shelters, war, cement, concrete, association, policy, air raid precautions, ARP, Britain, Second World War. WW2
Coleman, T. 1968 The Railway Navvies The definitive non-academic study of the working lives of the labourers who constructed the railway systems of Britain, Europe and the British Empire during the 19th century. Based on thorough analysis of primary and secondary sources and extremely well-written, it explains construction practices, contract practices, safety and welfare provision, women’s lives, the ’truck’ system and the relationship between sponsors, politicians, professionals, contractors, sub-contractors, gangers, labourers and the communities they affected. It has an excellent bibliography. Britain, Canada, Australia, France, railway, navvie, navvy, labourer, contractor, sub-contractor, ganger, truck, excavator, Brassey, Peto, Brunel, Locke
Berg, T., and Berg, P. 2001 R. R. Angerstein’s Illustrated Travel Diary, 1753-1755: Industry in England and Wales from a Swedish perspective. Angerstein’s tour through Britain in the middle of the 18th century was industrial espionage undertaken to ascertain the threat of newly industrialised Britain to the established iron and steel industry of Sweden. Nonetheless, he described and made drawings of most of the industries he encountered, as well as the transport infrastructure, including those concerned with the extraction and production of construction materials. The drawings are excellent explanations of, for instance, how quarrying was undertaken, lime produced or tin smelted. This is an invaluable source for all industrial archaeologists and construction historians studying the 18th century Sweden, Britain, industry, quarrying, stone, eighteenth, machines
Ibarra-Sevilla, B 2013 The first ribbed vaults in America: craft skills & construction processes of indigenous people in the Mixtec region of Southern Mexico
’Blockker, L. E., and Knight, H. A. 2013 Louisiana Bousillage : The migration & Evolution of a French Building Technique in North America. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 1 pp 27-48 Using field study, archival research, interviews with living practitioners and petrographic analysis, the authors dispell some common misconceptions about the tempered earth wall infill construction technique in America known as bousillage. The paper illuminates the full extent of the technique in North America and the manner in which it was made in Louisiana bousillage wattle daub Acadian Creole earthen earth
Obrien, Michael, J. 2013 Load-bearing, single wall construction from shanties to Structural Insulated Panels. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 49-64 The paper explains the single-wall timber construction technique used throughout North America from the 17th C to the 20th C, in comparison to the better-documented ’balloon frame’ technique, using surviving examples, anecdotal evidence and recorded anthropological data, and attempts a comparison with Lloyd-Wrights Usonian wall and contemporary Structural Insulated Panel single-wall, box, board, USA, America, vernacular, shanty, self-help, boomtown, 19th
’Sachs, A. and Stuth, T. A., 2013 Innovation and Tradition:Eighty years of Housing Construction in Southern Appalachia. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 65-82 The paper charts the history of advances in house construction in Southern Appalachia (USA), beginning with the Tennessee Valley Authority’s 1930s ’Norris House’ and wartime experimentation with demountable and ’truckable’ trailer housing, the post-war struggles to develop a pre-fabricated house industry and their resolution in the 1970s, and concluding with a current experimental project: the New Norris House. The study demonstrates several ways in which research and experimental projects have advanced and enhanced the construction of good, affordable houses. At the centre of the study is a recurring problem in house construction: the need to balance innovation and tradition - between technical improvements and construction processes on the one hand and the social and aesthetic value of regional and site-specific customization. Pre-fabrication prefabrication Tennessee Valley Authority USA prototypes, Norris 1930s 20th
’Kisacky, Jeanne’. 2013 Germs are in the details: Aseptic Design and general contractors at the Lying-in Hospital of the City of New York, 1897-1901. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 83-106 At a time when low-rise, decentralised, pavilion-ward standards-dominated hospital designs as a means of environmentally reducing internal cross-infections, the new building of the Lying-In Hospital of City of New York was a skyscraper. To prevent cross-infections in this non-standard structure, the doctors relied on ’aseptic’ design - devoid of materials, details and spatial interactions that could hide, shelter or transfer germs. Building construction was protracted and contentious, suffering from rising prices, materials shortages, labour difficulties and contractor disputes. The client and contractor debated whether construction that was not up to ’aseptic’ standards was the result of not working to specification or expecting the impossible. In the end, the complex requirements of aseptic design supported the development of specialisation in the design professions and building trades. hospital design, specialisation specialization lying-in New York urban USA
Campos,C. F., and Penido de Rezende, M. A., ’ 2013 History of the use and production of cement tiles in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 107-120 Cement tiles for floor and wall finishes, made using traditional craft skills of Italian immigrants, were widely used in buildings in Brazil from the early 20th C to the 1960s when cement tiles were replaced with mass-produced ceramic products. cement tiles Belo Horizonte Brazil 20th
McBride, E. G. 2013 The changing role of the Architect in the United States Construction Industry 1870-1913. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 121-140 The paper examines and discusses the changes to the working practices of Chicago and New York architects after the 1871 Chicago fire, to meet the unprecedented demands of developers and general contractors,particularly with respect to the need for increased floor space and create modern architectural engineering and the new approach to design and procurement that we know today. USA 19th architectural-engineering genera- contractor Chicago Cass Gilbert New York
Siry, J. M. 2013 Frank Lloyd Wright’s Innovative approach to environmental control in his buildings for the S. C. Johnson Company. Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 141 - 164 The paper assesses Frank Lloyd-Wrights designs for heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation of mther S C Johnson Company Administration Building (1936-39) and Research Tower (1943-50) in Racine, Wisconsin. As a variation on the then novel idea of the ’windowless office building’ the Admin Building features, inter alia, heating with low-pressure steam pipes under the concrete floor, and independent control of different zones, synchronized with the sun’s movements. Wright achieved a high level of integration in which novel mechanical systems were intrinsic to the architecture of the building and its spatial, visual and structural forms. However the building proved to be expensive and, while many of the innovations were successful, others needed remediation. Frak Lloyd Wright, Johnson Wax, HVAC, windowless, environmental controls, services, utilities, Wisconsin, USA
Sprague, T. S. 2013 "Beauty, Versatility, Practicality" : The rise of Hyperbolic Paraboloids in post war America (1950-1962). Construction History Vol 28 No. 1 pp 165-184 The paper reviews the people and buildings that influenced the adoption and spread of hyperbolic paraboloid structures in the USA after 1950. hyperbolic paraboloid aluminium plywood concrete formwork USA 1950s
Burchardt, J. 2014 Danske veje på Guldkysten. Da trnasport udførtes af bærere på små stier Danish roads on the Gold Coast. When transport was on shoulders of people on small paths. The tsetse-fly killed potential draft animals. The infrastructure was selfgrown paths. 1600-1925 paths, transport, Gold Coast, Ghana,
Summerson, John 1985 What is the history of construction? Construction History, Vol 1, pp.1-2.
Hinchcliffe, T.F.M. 1985 In pursuit of construction history: historical material held by building firms. Construction History, Vol.1, pp.6-12. An analysis of the challenges facing historians of small building firms, based on a project funded by the NFBTE in 1976. Identifies the most-promising companies, in terms of archives held, and summarises the contents of their archives. . Britain, 18th, 18th, 20th, Anelay, Holland & Hannen, Cubitt, Corben, Moss, Trollope & Colls
Powell, C.G. 1985 Case studies and lost tribes: the Bristol firm of James Diment and Stephens, Bastow & Co. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.25-35.
Donnelly, T. 1985 Structure, technology and demand in the Aberdeen granite quarrying industry, 1880-1914. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.36-51.
Finnimore, Brian. 1985 The A.I.R.O.H. house: industrial diversification and state building policy. Construction History, Vol.1, pp.60-71.
Rodger, Richard. 1986 Structural instability in the Scottish building industry 1820-80. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.48-60.
Davison, Kate. 1986 Sources for the construction history of the Second World War. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.76-79.
I. Stoyanova 2016 ’The Roof of the Gallery Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan: Reconstructing the Original Building Technology’ pp. 277 294 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Bill, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, M. Tutton , Chr. Wall and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Further Studies in the History of Construction: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Construction History Society Roof, Gallery, Milan, Building technology, 19th century
I. Stoyanova 2017 ’Disappearing Tobacco Warehouses in Plovdiv: Building Technology and an Important Legacy’ pp. 399-414 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, T. Rosoman, M. Tutton and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Building Histories. The Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the Construction History Society. Tobacco, Warehouses, Plovdiv, Building technology, 20th century
I. Stoyanova 2018 ’Scaffolds for the Iron and Glass Roof o f Gallery Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan: challenges, design and evolution’ pp.369-378 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, A. Boyington, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, H. Schoenefeldt, M. Tutton and D. Yeomans, Studies in the History of Service and Construction. The Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the CHS Scaffolds, Iron, Glass, Vittorio Emanuele, Milan
I. Stoyanova 2019 ’Comparing Plovdiv and Greek Tobacco Warehouses: Comprehending a Historic Local Construction Type’ pp.673-688 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, M. Driver, M. Heaton, S. Kuban, M. Tutton, Chr. Wall and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Water, Doors and Buildings. Studies in the History of Construction. The Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the CHS Tobacco, Warehouses, Plovdiv, Greece, 20th century, Construction type
I. Stoyanova 2018 ’At the Intersection of Foreign Building Know How: Plovdiv in the Early Twentieth Century’ pp.1255-1262 in I. Wouters,S. Van de Voorde, I. Bertels, B. Espion, K. De Jonge, D. Zastavni, (Eds), Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories. The Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Construction History, Vol.2. This paper suggests a new perspective on twentieth-century Plovdiv, Bulgaria, as a crossroads of foreign construction know-how. The paper discusses three notable yet insufficiently studied buildings: the railway station (1905-08), Excelsior cinema (1911-12) and tobacco warehouses (1912-28). First, using archival and historical literature, it seeks to understand the protagonists behind the design and construction of the station building. This research was augmented with onsite investigations of building materials and techniques. Next, the paper discusses the construction technology of the cinema. Then, it adds to an understanding of the local warehouse building type through a comparative analysis of several case studies. This paper unveils traces of foreign influence in all three by comparing their features with buildings described in foreign nineteenth-century technical manuals. The paper extends the little existing knowledge on the three examples and suggests the ways through which building know-how flowed into Plovdiv. Plovdiv, 20th century, Railway station, Excelsior cinema, Tobacco warehouses
Lorenz, W. and Kurrer, K.E. 2018 Construction History in Germany. In: Antonio Becchi et al: L’Histoire de la construction / Construction History. Vol. 1, pp.195-246. ABSTRACT – The recent establishment (2013) of a German association dedicated to the history of construction represents an important step. Even if the contours of the field are relatively well-defined, two differences make them unique. Germans position themselves in relation to the old theory/practice debate and four themes are dominant: structural engineering, architecture, cultural heritage preservation, and archeology. The history of construction is now established among the scientific community.
Lorenz, W., Kosykh, A., Frommelt, K. 2018 The roof of the Marble Palace in Saint-Petersburg: A structural iron ensemble from the 1770s. In: Wouters, I. et al (Ed.), Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Construction History, pp. 809–817. It is one of the classic narratives in construction history that the first load-bearing iron frames were erected in France in the late eighteenth century. However, early iron roof structures were already built in Russia several decades before. As part of a larger study of these virtually unknown iron structures, the paper focuses on the wrought-iron roof truss of the Marble Palace in Saint-Petersburg. Covering an area of approximately 4000 m2, it was assembled in the 1770s. Designed on the basis of patterns used for traditional timber roofs, and assembled during this “Golden Age” of Russian metallurgy, the structure is a unique example testifying to the high level of the builders’ craftsmanship. Based on comprehensive investigations, supplemented with material testing and structural calculations, this paper describes and assesses the iron roof of the Marble Palace as one of the first steps in developing the “language of construction” of building with iron and steel.
Lorenz, W., Kosykh, A., Frommelt, K. 2017 Steel viaduct refurbishment inspired by the original structure and its history. In: Pelke, E.; Brühwiler, H. (eds.): Engineering History and Heritage Structures – Viewpoints and Approaches. Structural Engineering Documents 15. pp.173-178.
Lorenz, W. Luong, M.; Rohrmann, R.G.; Zabel, V. 2017 Finite Element Model Calibration of a Historic Wiegmann–Polonceau Truss Based on Experimental Modal Parameters. In: Conte, P. et al. (eds.): Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Structures. Testing, Sensing, Monitoring, and Control. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 5. pp. 212-224.
Lorenz, W. and Heres, B. 2015 The Demidov Ironworks In Nevyansk (Ural Mountains) – Iron Structures In Building From The First Half Of The 18th Century. In: Bowen, B. et al. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Construction History, Chicago, June 3-7, 2015, vol.2, pp.505-517. ISBN Although the use of single wrought or cast iron structural elements such as tie rods, plates or columns goes back to the ancient world and became more and more common in the 17th and 18th centuries, the roof structures erected in Paris at the Théâtre Francais (1786–90) and the Salon Carré du Louvre (1789) are commonly regarded as the first examples of complete iron roof trusses in the history of construction. However, an earlier, larger application of an iron truss has been found in Russia dating from the first half of the 18th century. Considering the dominant role of Russian iron production in the 18th century, this is hardly surprising. The “golden age of Russian iron” goes back to the strategic decision of Peter the Great, at the end of the 17th century, to push forward the foundation of iron-making plants in connection with pre-industrial “works towns” in the Ural Mountains. Within a few decades, the Urals became the centre of Russian iron production, with plants often equipped with larger and better tools and machinery than in Europe. Nevyansk, 90 km north of Yekaterinburg, was the first of these new plant towns. Founded by the state in 1699 but transferred into private hands (Nikita Demidov) in 1702, Nevyansk, the “grandfather of the Ural plant towns”, became one of the most important factories – not only in the Urals, but also in Europe in terms of both the quantity and quality of the metal produced. From the structural point of view, the 58 m high “Leaning Tower” of Nevyansk and its porch are of central interest. Work on these began in 1722 and they are still standing today. Whereas the tower contains an impressive array of cast and wrought iron elements, including composite girders made of both materials, the porch is covered by a delicate roof truss built entirely of wrought iron; it spans about 9 m and reaches a height of 7.50 m. This essay analyses these iron structures in the context of the iron industry in the Urals in the 18th century. Russian iron industry, bloomery iron, cast iron, reinforced cast beam, iron roof truss
Lorenz, W. and May, R. 2012 CH.ESS: European Summer Schools on Construction History. In: Carvais, R. et al. (eds.): Nuts & Bolts of Construction History. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Construction History, Paris, July 3-7, 2012, vol.1, pp.105-112. The lack of degree programmes in construction history motivated a group of scholars to begin work on creating a European master’s programme in the field. As a first step on this path, they set up a series of European Summer Schools on Construction History (CH.ESS). Jointly organized by universities in Brussels, Cambridge, Cottbus, Madrid, Munich and Wroclaw, the first of these events took place in Cambridge in the summer of 2011. In keeping with the transdisciplinary character of construction history, the two-week course brought together students and teachers from a variety of academic disciplines. The experiences gained with CH.ESS could be of interest to any university teacher who is planning to set up a degree programme in construction history. With that in mind, the authors (members of the central CH.ESS organising team) will end this report with some remarks about the main problems that arose in trying to teach construction history in an international and multidisciplinary context. Concrete Structures; Construction History; Design Methods and Aids; Domes; Education; Heritage; Masonry Construction; Shell Structures; Static Analysis; Stone Construction; Surveying; Vaulting; Vaults
Lorenz, W. 2006 Iterative system identification for the assessment and retrofitting of a historical pre-stressed concrete bridge in Berlin. In: Lourenço, P.B. et al. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, New Delhi, Nov 6-8, 2006, vol.1, pp.617-624. The quality of the assessment and if necessary retrofitting of a historical structure depends primarily on the as close-to-reality identification and modelling of its static behaviour. This paper demonstrates the advantages of a hybrid approach to historic structures - the behaviour of which is often hybrid as well - using the assessment of one of the oldest pre-stressed concrete bridges of Berlin as an example. Built in 1958 with a span length of approximately 65 m, using the Freyssinet system for pre-stressing, it has been heavily used by the Berlin metro line for about 40 years. Notable cracks discovered in 2002 caused a thorough evaluation which was characterized by the combination of a comprehensive record of historical damage, a measuring programme for the determination of the state of stress of the external tendons, the development of a realistic FE model by calibration on the basis of the experimental results, excavations for the investigation of the actual condition of bearings as well as a one-year automated structural health monitoring program. As a result the bridge could be judged to be capable of bearing loads and to be suf-ficiently serviceable without the need for particular retrofitting.
Lorenz, W. 2003 History of construction: An estimable resource in the actual crisis of civil engineering? In: Huerta, S. (Ed.): Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, Jan 20-24, 2003, vol.1, pp.31-41.
Lorenz, W. 2004 The Challenge of Creativity – Learning from History? In: CEB-FIP (Ed.): Proceedings of the 5th fib (federation internationale du beton) symposium: Concrete Structures: the Challenge of Creativity. Avignon, April 26-28, 2004, pp.15-24. To master the challenges of globalisation ingenious creativity is needed more than ever before. From a historic point of view creativity is a new term in structural engineering. To gain an understanding of the specific creativity of the pioneers in reinforced and prestressed concrete construction it is important to analyse their ability, to develop and cultivate a “creative climate”. It was closely connected with some timeless virtues of engineering. Some of these virtues are discussed such as the sense for the material, simplicity, the right balance between static and intuition or the courage to dispute. An important question in this context is the question for the engineer’s responsibility. History offers different positions to this. Today, against the background of global challenges, civil engineers have to develop a new understanding of creativity, which is connected with an increased awareness of responsibility and aims at more than structural or aesthetical quality. creativity; globalisation; construction history; reinforced concrete; prestressing; simplicity; responsibility; virtue.
Lorenz, W. 1999 The Berlin Neues Museum – a microcosm of Prussian building technology against the background of beginning industrialisation. In: Brebbia, C.A.; Jäger, W. (eds.): Proceedings of the 6th International Conference Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Historical Buildings, Dresden 1999, pp.389-398.
Dr. David Yeomans 1992 The Architect and the Carpenter - The trussed roof: its history and development
Dr. David Yeomans 2000 Construction since 1900 : Material.
Dr David Yeomans with D cottam 2001 Owen Williams, (part of a series- The engineers contribution to contemporary Architecture.
Dr David Yeomans with S Emmitt 2001 Specifying Buildings :a design management perspective
Dr. David Yeomans 2003 The repair of historic timber Structures
Dr. David Yeomans 2009 How stuctures work : structural design and behaviour from bridges to buildings
Amici C.M. 2015 Hidden iron: high tech devices in roman imperial architecture, pp. 1-18, 5th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS CONSTRUCTION HISTORY, Chicago 2015, pp. 63-71. In Roman imperial times metallurgy reached a high degree of specialization and complexity. In spite of the difficulty of finding metal remains still in place, it is possible to demonstrate that iron was sometimes used in construction, although it was intentionally hidden to take advantage of its strength without revealing its presence.
Dunkeld, Malcolm 1987 Approaches to Construction History. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.3-15.
Louw, H.J. 1987 The Rise of the Metal Window during the Early Industrial Period in Britain, c.1750-1830. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.31-54.
Charlton, T.M. 1987 Innovation in Structural Theory in the Nineteenth Century. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.55-60. Examines the forces driving developments in structural theory during the 19th C in Britain, Europe and the USA, particularly the influence of railway construction. Identifies the principle people, theories, structures and failures involved.
Locock, Martin 1992 The Development of the Building Trades in the West Midlands, 1400-1850. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.3-19
Louw, Hentie 1992 The Mechanisation of Architectural Woodwork in Britain from the Late-Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Century, and its Practical, Social and Aesthetic Implications. Part I: The Period c.1790 to c.1860. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.21-54.
Jackson, Neil 1992 Views with a Room: taxation and the return of the bay window to the third rate speculative houses of nineteenth-century London. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.55-67
Fedorov, Sergey G. 1992 Matthew Clark and the Origins of Russian Structural Engineering 1810-40s: an introductory biography. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.69-88.
Smith, Stanley 1992 The Design of Structural Ironwork 1850-90: Education, Theory and Practice. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.89-108
MacKenzie, A.D. 2009 Canadian Society for Civil Engineering National History Committee. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 5-6. This briefing looks at the objectives and current historical activities of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) History
Gould, Michael. 2010 The innovative use of concrete by the LMS railway. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.139-145. The various railway companies in Britain and Ireland were very reluctant to use reinforced concrete in bridge decks that carried trains before about 1950. This paper looks at a remarkable exception to the rule, the railway north of Belfast that became part of the English LMS. To run it, a body called the Northern Counties Committee (NCC) was set up that operated with considerable independence. As early as 1911, the engineers of the NCC were replacing timber bridge decks with precast concrete slabs. As spans increased, they next used slabs with two attached beams and then individual T beams that became larger as their experience in the use of reinforced concrete grew. Once the use of concrete was accepted, it was used for a variety of other purposes, notably for precast buildings. In 1933, a cut-off line was constructed that included a massive viaduct at Greenisland: this was claimed as constituting the largest concrete work in Britain or Ireland to that time. The paper ends with some indications as to how this experience was brought to the parent LMS Railway Company as the Irish engineers were successively moved to London after 1930. Bridges / Concrete Structures / History
Borden, Allison H. 2010 Identifying early reinforced concrete buildings in Scotland. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. . Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.147-167. This paper reports the results of a pre-inventory, or review of documentary sources, to identify buildings constructed using proprietary reinforced concrete systems in Scotland. A number of buildings were constructed using proprietary, or patented, reinforced concrete systems in Britain between roughly 1900 and the 1920s. The majority of these buildings were designed by specialist firms with origins outside Britain. Although some of these buildings are listed, as a group they have been little studied due to their relative youth, negative perceptions of them and difficulties faced in their conservation. As development pressures mount and calls for the reuse and, in some cases, demolition of these buildings become more frequent, there is an increasing need to locate documentation to assist with their investigation. It is hoped that this pre-inventory of Scottish buildings will not only serve as a framework for gathering information about this building type, but will also serve as a model for wider conservation efforts. Concrete Structures / Conservation / History
Harper, Brian Charles Seymour. 2010 The 1862 gold fields water supply scheme: Victoria, Australia. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.169-178. A major water supply scheme to support mining at two significant alluvial gold fields in the colony of Victoria, Australia was undertaken in the 1860s. It involved a large clay core embankment dam on the Coliban river and aqueducts to serve the mining communities at Castlemaine and Sandhurst. In a new colony lacking hydrological records, estimation of the river flow and the flood characteristics presented a challenge to the designer Joseph Brady. The paper examines Brady’s approach to estimating these hydrological parameters and the reaction of other engineers in the colony to the design. The scheme was modified during construction to increase the volume to be delivered, but the higher level of supply could not be realised. Also the climatic conditions in the colony produced occasional floods with a higher crest than Brady’s estimate. Additional spillway capacity was provided during construction, but the peak volumes were such that the dam had to be held below full capacity level to prevent destruction through overtopping. Problems with the scheme brought about a programme of hydrological surveys of river catchments in the colony. Examination of 50 years of Coliban records shows the acumen of the original design engineer Joseph Brady. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history / hydrology & water resource
Hartley, Richard G. 2010 Lessons from Western Australia’s goldfields water supply scheme. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.179-187. In July 1896, the parliament of the sparsely populated colony of Western Australia voted to raise a loan of £2•5 million in London to construct a reliable water supply for its booming Coolgardie goldfield, a sum greater than the total cost of the colony’s capital works in any previous year. The scheme, prepared by the colony’s engineer-in-chief, Charles O’Connor, involved pumping water 565 km along the world’s first steel pipeline, which required 77 000 t of steel plate. This paper argues that the scheme was not one of monumental extravagance as its opponents claimed, but was one that was designed using the latest hydraulic research and ultimately was the only one that could have provided the reliability required to sustain the goldfield past its early years. Logistical problems, both in materials supply and in the construction of the pipeline largely through uninhabited country, were huge by contemporary standards. Two important technical innovations, the locking bar pipe and the mechanical pipe caulking machine, helped keep the cost of the project close to budget. The lessons learnt from the long, but eventually successful, battle against corrosion and leakage benefited hydraulic engineers around the world. History / steel structures / water supply
Drabble, Stuart. 2010 Templer & Parlby: eighteenth century contractor. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. . Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.189-198. James Templer (1722–1782) and Thomas Parlby (1727–1802) were men of humble origin who became prominent contractors in the second half of the eighteenth century, working mainly, though not exclusively, in the royal dockyards for the Navy Board. Over 40 projects have been attributed to them or to one of their constituent organisations. England’s quest for maritime supremacy throughout the eighteenth century led to an expansion in the royal dockyards, requiring large-scale civil engineering and building projects. These were undertaken variously by dockyard workers or by external contractors or, sometimes, both working together. Templer, a house carpenter and Parlby, a stonemason, emerged from the ranks of artisans to create a large and effective workforce operating across the south of England. Between them, they acquired properties in London, Middlesex, Kent, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon. Although their businesses brought them wealth and social standing, their interests were not pursued by later generations of either family and their firms shrank into obscurity after 1802. Biography / history / ports, docks & harbours
Heyman, Jacques 2009 The establishment of plastic design in the UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 7-11. Tests were made on steel-framed buildings under construction in London in the early 1930s and they revealed startling discrepancies between the values of stresses calculated by conventional elastic designers and those actually measured. It became apparent that very small defects in manufacture of construction could have a great influence on the actual state of a structure; moreover, these defects could not, by their nature, be predicted. It was at this time, however, that results were published on the collapse behaviour of steel structures – initial defects were ‘wiped out’ by plastic deformation, and the final collapse loads appeared to be independent of the defects. The ‘plastic’ method was investigated in the UK (in Bristol and Cambridge) from 1936 onwards, and by 1948 a clause was inserted into the relevant British standard permitting plastic design in steel. Further advances in the second half of the 20th century revealed the theoretical basis for simple plastic design. Elastic analysis is necessary for the calculation of deflexions and the investigation of stability, but the examination of ‘plastic’ strength uses only the equilibrium equations and knowledge of the yield stress of the material. The plastic design method could be renamed that of ‘static equilibrium‘, and it is applicable to structures oof reinforced concrete, of masonry, and indeed of any ductile material that a designer would consider safe in practice. Design Methods & Aids / History / Structural Frameworks
Fahlbusch, Henning 2009 Early dams. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 13-18. The Jawa dam in northern Jordan is often regarded as the oldest known dam in the world. The structure and the famous Sadd el Kafara in Egypt are both well known. However, it seems logical that these large dams had forerunners with an unknown chain of development. Research works over the last five years have revealed small dams in southern Jordan that can be dated to the seventh millennium BC. The dams of the Neolithic and early Bronze Age were designed just to withstand water pressure – not to prevent seepage. A layer of relatively impermeable soil used for sealing was observed for the first time at Hittite dams at Sarissa and Hattusa. A pavement of large stones on the downstream face permitted some defence against water overflowing the dam. These dams therefore represent a significant step in the development of modern dams. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history
Wermiel, Sara E. 2009 Introduction of steel columns in US buildings, 1862-1920. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 19-27. This paper traces the early history of steel columns in US buildings including the development of steel sections and examples of buildings in which they were used. A common misconception is addressed: that the frames of early skeleton-frame buildings in the USA were made entirely of steel. In fact, some of the first skeleton frames contained no steel at all. In the 1890s, the era of US pioneer skyscrapers, the part of a building’s frame least likely to be made of steel was the columns. At this time, steel columns had to be fabricated from various rolled shapes and the extra labour involved was a factor in their high cost. There were many forms of steel columns and professional opinion differed regarding which sections offered the most strength and best connections at the least cost. Many contingent factors encouraged designers to use steel columns or choose alternatives, or to select one section rather than another. A key point is that structural steel was not a precondition for the development of skeleton-frame construction. Moreover, the diverse ways designers used materials show how experimental frame design was in the early days of skeleton-frame construction. Eventually, by the second decade of the decade of the twentieth century, all-steel frames became the norm for tall buildings. Buildings, structures & design / columns
Milner, Philip 1992 The Engineering of the Port of Melbourne. Sixth National Conference on Engineering Heritage (5-7 October 1992) Hobart, Tas. Institution of Engineers, Australia, Tasmania Division, 1992: 29-34. National conference publication; no. 92/17. The development of the port of Melbourne is described from its initial establishment along the River Yarra, and at Port Melbourne and Williamstown; together with an analysis of the conflict between Sir John Coode and Joseph Brady with respect to the location and method of construction of Victoria Dock, its subsequent operation and adaptation in response to changes both in the volume of general cargo handled and in transport technology, and the causes of its demise. A study of comparable port facilities in other parts of the world suggests that Victoria Dock is now the largest extant nineteenth century tidal basin in the world, which also still retains several ’crucial elements in the development of the traditional (non-containerized) port: linear wharfage and multi-berth cargo handling facilities; and illustrates both a significant stage in the technology of cargo handling and a dockland culture which, with the introduction of containerization, has all but disappeared. seaport development / dock design, construction & operation / Melbourne / history
Buchanan, Robert Angus, et al. 2009 Case studies in engineering training and professional education. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 29-37. This project springs from a discussion among members of a history of technology seminar at the University of Bath. It reflects a widespread apprehension that all is not well with our national training programmes for engineers and other professional groups. British practice has traditionally paid particular attention to the skills that can be acquired by performing tasks under the guidance of established experts. However, it is now generally recognised that such an apprenticeship system is not adequate to meet the modern demands for highly specialised technical skills, which, moreover, are constantly changing in response to new knowledge. It has become necessary to rely on tuition in universities and specialist technical institutions, although this requires supplementation by personal application to reading, field-work, model-making and technical drawing. The resulting amalgam of acquired and taught crafts with a high level of personal commitment is what we have come to expect of our experts. While recognising that it is not possible to generalise precisely from a small number of case studies, these studies nevertheless attempt to assess the value of different elements in our professional training through a comparison of four cases. The emphasis is on engineering because this represents the background of most members of the group, and also because engineering training procedures have been the subject of particular recent anxiety. But other experiences provide a wider context in which the strengths and weaknesses of engineering education and training can be regarded. Education & training / history
Bridle, Ron J., and Sims, Frank A. 2009 The effect of bridge failures on UK technical policy and practice. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 39-49. The first part of this paper sets the scene for the growth of the road programme in the UK since 1950 and new additions to the existing stock of bridges. The second part describes the events that gave concern for the integrity of these bridges and the attention given to the policy and inspection procedures to safeguard the nation’s existing stock. Tables describing the bridge stock, the principal factors influencing maintenance expenditure and the principal tasks are provided, together with concluding observations and acknowledgement of the great efforts of the bridge engineering community over the half-century covered. bridges / dangers & hazards / failures
Cox, Ronald C. 2009 Telford in Ireland: work, opinions and influence. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 51-60. The paper presents a review of Telford’s work in Ireland, in particular the Howth Road, the final link in the plan to improve communication between London and Dublin. Telford’s influence on Irish dock and harbour construction is also discussed, as well as his role in the planning of the Ulster Canal. history / ports docks & harbours / roads & highways
Taylor,Andrew, Plant,Chris & Dickerson,James 2009 Wellington Street Swing Bridge, Hull, UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 67-79. The growth of Hull as a British port at the time of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) saw the construction of docks and dock bridges similar to those in London, Plymouth and Liverpool. These structures now form an essential part of Britain’s heritage and are protected under listed buildings and conservation regulations. For several years, Hull City Council has been developing a conservation policy for its nine listed bridges and a comprehensive historical audit was required. This paper looks into the history of Hull Docks and the development of cast-iron swing bridges between 1800 and 1850. The paper describes the design of Hull’s cast-iron Wellington Street Swing Bridge as part of a scheme for restoration of the bridge to working order. When the bridge was originally built, it would have been required to carry horse-drawn traffic that would probably have weighed no more than 5 t in total and carried commodities at walking pace, thus minimising the impact factor. The original bridge design may have been based on a three-pinned arch, although this is just speculation. Bridges /conservation / ports, docks & harbours
Neville, Adam 2009 History of high-alumina cement. Part 1: Problems and the Stone report. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 81-91. The paper is published in two parts. Part 1 presents a lead-up to the Stone Committee. A brief description of high-alumina cement (HAC) is given andthe problems with its use in structures are outlined. The body of the Stone Committee report is then dealt with and some more widely applicable conclusions of the report are discussed. Part 2 discusses the background to HAC problems in light of the Stone Committee report as well as the present day situation. Concrete Structures / Failures / History
Neville, Adam 2009 History of high-alumina cement. Part 2: Background to issues. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 93-101. Part 1 of this paper dealt with the Stone Committee Report as a solution to the problem of the failure of high-alumina cement (HAC) Concrete in structures. This part discusses the reasons why the problems arose: in a nutshell, ignorance of the behaviour of HAC, and relentless pressure to sell HAC as a problem-free material. Concrete Structures / Failures / History
Brown, David Henthorn 2009 Canal reservoirs in Great Britain. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 103-110. This paper considers the development of canal reservoirs in Great Britain from a historical perspective and reflects how they developed in the light of changing requirements and engineering advances. Ninety-two reservoirs, with an average of 188 years, remain the responsibility of British Waterways. There are many more which have found other uses or been discontinued. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history / waterways & canals
Bartlett, F.Michael, et al. 2009 1870s innovation in London Canada’s Blackfriars Bridge. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 111-117. Blackfriars Bridge in London, Ontario, Canada is a wrought-iron bowstring-arch-truss bridge fabricated by the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of Canton, Ohio, and erected in 1875. Although typical of the 19km of wrought-iron bowstrings constructed by the company in this period, the bridge is one of the first to feature a ‘double-panel’ web diagonal arrangement that was patented in the USA one year after the bridge was constructed. Considering the state of structural engineering knowledge in the 1870s, this paper investigates whether the structural response of the double-panel diagonal could have been correctly analysed by the original designers or whether the bridge may have been erected as a prototype to validate the innovative feature. Design loads are specified in the company’s 1874 book of designs that depend on whether the bridge is located in the country, a town, a second-class city or a first-clas city. The truss statistically indeterminate to the thirteenth degree, can be manually analysed neglecting slender web diagonals in compression if the participation of vertical members above the double-diagonals is ignored. The patent highlights the structural contribution of these members, however, and because their participation can only be assessed using modern computer analyses, Blackfriars Bridge may have been built as a prototype to validate the double-panel design feature Bridges / Design Methods & Aids / History
Sutherland, H.B. 1999 Professor William John Macquorn Rankine. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 132, Issue 4, pp. 181-187. Macquorn Rankine is probably best known among civil engineers for his 1857 theory on earth pressure, which is still a prominent feature in today’s geotechnical textbooks. But he was also one of the founding fathers of thermodynamics, a world authority on ship design, a fellow of the Royal Society and instigator of the first engineering degree course at a British university. On top of this he was a soldier, a musician and a poet. Nevertheless after fifteen years as an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, he was apparently not considered suitable for promotion to member and promptly resigned. This paper reviews his enormous contribution to the advancement of engineering and science and, more importantly, to that of society. Glasgow University / Biography / Engineering / Earth Pressure /Geotechnics / Thermodynamics / Ships / Design / Engineers / Education / Courses / Degrees / Science /Society / History
Jones, Stephen K. 2009 Briefing: an engineering historian’s heritage, Rhys Jenkins (1859–1953) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.123-124. Rhys Jenkins was a pioneer in the study of the history of engineering and technology and one of the founder members of the Newcomen Society, the oldest learned society in the world devoted to the study of the engineering and technology history. This is a brief account of Rhys Jenkins’ early life and Welsh background, which influenced his later interest in engineering history. Biography / History
Bailey, Michael R 2009 Briefing: 150th anniversary of Robert Stephenson’s death. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.125-126. Robert Stephenson is one of only two engineers – the other being Thomas Telford – to be buried in Westminster Abbey, reflecting the deep respect with which both were held. Although his reputation is maintained among discerning students of engineering history, Stephenson is less well known today among the population at large, this provides an opportunity to promote further knowledge of his life and career. Biography / History
Barnes, Martin 2007 Thomas Telford, project manager. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 61-64. (May 2007) This paper examines Thomas Telford’s achievement as a project manager against modern criteria for that role. It shows that he was undoubtedly one of the best project managers of his time but appears to have confined his innovations to engineering design rather than attempting to change the way major projects were managed. He nevertheless inspired all who worked with him and proved that you do not need modern communications and management tools to be an outstanding project manager. History / Management / Roads & Highways / Waterways & Canals
Bligh, David, Brown, David, & Crowe, Nigel 2007 Birmingham Canal, England - a future unlocked by Telford. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 56-60. (May 2007) Thomas Telford’s best known canal work is probably Pontcysyllte Aqueduct on the Llangollen (Ellesmere) Canal, possibly followed by the construction of the Shropshire Union and Caledonian Canals. However, the greatest concentration of engineering works exhibiting Telford’s genius is probably a 6 km length of the Birmingham Canal, where he dramatically upgraded the waterway while maintaining existing traffic and preserving revenues for the canal company. This paper describes the project, which included removing a congested summit of six locks with a vast cutting up to 22 m deep. The canal and its structures remain in full use today. History / Waterways & Canals
Chrimes, Michael 2007 St Katharine Docks, London - Telford’s high-speed harbour. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 48-55. (May 2007) The current paper describes Thomas Telford’s work as engineer for St Katharine Docks, London, in the context of his role as a maritime engineer. Although not the largest in London, they presented one of the most challenging projects in Telford’s career, not least owing to the extreme time pressure he was put under to get the docks trading in London’s then busy and profitable shipping industry. With up to 1000 construction workers on site, and despite a major flood, the first ship entered the dock in 1828—just three years after contracts were let. Construction / Docks / History / Management
Quartermaine, Jamie 2007 Telford’s Holyhead Road in Wales – the first super highway. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 43-47. (May 2007) The London to Holyhead Road is widely recognised as one of Telford’s greatest engineering achievements, particularly its landmark suspension bridges at Menai and Conwy. However, it was the dramatic improvements to the route through north Wales that proved most beneficial to the growing stagecoach traffic between newly unified England and Ireland. Even though the railways soon took over, the road set an early benchmark for future road construction projects worldwide. This paper describes the north Wales section which, two centuries on, is still very much in use, along with its many innovative bridges, toll houses, depots and street furniture. Bridges / History / Roads & Highways
Ford, Christopher R. 2007 Telford’s Highland roads – a new way of life for Scotland. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 36-42. (May 2007) Thomas Telford constructed nearly 1200 km of roads and over 1000 bridges in the Highlands of Scotland for the government in 1803–21. Their purpose was to alleviate the living conditions in the poverty-stricken country by providing immediate work and opening up communications. This paper describes how Telford designed and organised this massive project, including his introduction into Scotland of competitive tendering by private contractors, his standard specification for roads and bridges and the need for immediate maintenance. Contracts / History / Roads & Highways
Davies, Hugh 2007 Thomas Telford: highway engineer ahead of his time. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 31-35. (May 2007) Many of Thomas Telford’s innovations in highway engineering were way ahead of his time, but are now familiar practice on modern motorways, ranging from using experiments to provide a rational basis for design to constructing massive cuttings, embankments and bridgeworks. The present paper describes the state of Britain’s roads in the eighteenth century—when it took 230 hours to travel between London and Edinburgh—and then discusses Telford’s road-building activities and his novel approach to design. The disagreement with John McAdam is also described, together with an assessment of Telford’s contribution to the evolution of modern highway engineering. History / Pavement Design / Roads & Highways
Day, William 2007 Telford’s Menai and Conwy Suspension Bridges, Wales. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 26-30. (May 2007) Menai and Conwy suspension bridges in Wales, both completed in 1826 to Telford’s design, represented a significant advance in engineering science and were the culmination of extensive experiment and theoretical study. Telford established practices and procedures during the design and construction of the 177 m span Menai and 100 m span Conwy bridges for experiment, analysis, test and inspection that are recognised to this day as good practice in engineering. The ideas and methods adopted have had a lasting influence upon the profession. Bridges / Cables & Tendons / History
Day, Tom 2007 Telford’s masonry bridges on the Carluke Road, Scotland. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 20-25. (May 2007) This paper describes the construction of Thomas Telford’s imposing nineteenth century bridge at Cartland Crags in Lanarkshire, Scotland and five smaller masonry bridges on the same stretch of road leading to Carluke. It is based largely on letters written by Telford, his inspectors and the contractor—some in the form of progress reports and others describing incidents during construction. They provide a revealing insight into the interaction between the parties involved, particularly during the tendering process and when things went wrong on site. Brickwork & Masonry / Bridges / History
Paxton, Roland 2007 Thomas Telford’s cast-iron bridges. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 12-19. (May 2007) Thomas Telford’s innovations using cast iron included a landmark lightweight type of arch bridge with spans of 32–52 m, longer than then practicable in stone and exhibiting an unparalleled combination of strength, economy and intuitive design. This development influenced cast-iron bridge building until the 1830s and the adoption of elegant and effective lozenge-lattice bracing in bridge spandrels until the 1870s. This paper identifies and examines Telford’s mastery in cast-iron bridge design, exemplified by a legacy of six bridges which are still operational in varying degrees after nearly two centuries. Bridges / Conservation / History / Testing of Materials
Cross-Rudkin, P.S.M. 2007 Thomas Telford, county surveyor. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 160, Issue 5, pp. 7-11. (May 2007) This paper describes Thomas Telford’s early years in post as the first county surveyor of Shropshire in the UK, as well as the challenging nature of his relationships with the justices of the peace who employed him. As Telford’s reputation on the national stage grew, his duties increasingly kept him away from the county and he employed Thomas Stanton to undertake the day-to-day work. Telford, however, retained responsibility and correspondence between the two men shows he not only provided leadership when required but also stepped into the breach when his deputy was being pressurised by the cost-conscious justices. Biography / Bridges / History
Abbott, Tim, & Ayling, Les 2009 High Level Bridge: engineering successful heritage solutions. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.127-136. (August 2009) In May 2008 the High Level Bridge, which spans the River Tyne between Gateshead and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, reopened following a seven-year, £42 million programme of repair and strengthening that also encompassed its conservation as an important piece of UK national heritage. The bridge has a statutory designation as a grade I listed building, the highest designation, and is a strategic part of the rail and road systems in the north east of England. A decision was taken that the bridge required more than its regular maintenance; it required ‘renewal’—a term used by English Heritage not for replacement but for a process that occurs at a longer cycle than maintenance and is more drastic in terms of interventions and the loss of heritage values. The varied nature of necessary repairs and interventions to historic buildings (bridges are buildings under the protective legislation) means that there are no easily defined rules; judgement and the application of principles of conservation are how protection and change are managed. This paper seeks to explain the methods and processes used to give this bridge a sustainable future while managing the changes to protect and respect its historic value. Bridges / Conservation / Maintenance & Inspection
Jackson, Donald C. 2009 Structural art: John S. Eastwood and the multiple arch dam. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.137-146. (August 2009) In his landmark book The Tower and the Bridge, engineering professor/historian David Billington proposes the concept of ‘structural art’ and, with a focus on bridges, thin shell roofs and tall buildings, describes its relationship to the ideals of efficiency, economy and elegance. Dams are not discussed in The Tower and the Bridge, apparently because the massive gravity designs commonly built for major projects represent bulky, inefficient designs. Moving beyond gravity dam technology, this paper explores how John S. Eastwood’s work designing multiple arch dams accords with Billington’s idea of structural art. Eastwood built the world’s first reinforced concrete multiple arch dam at Hume Lake, California in 1908 and during the last 15 years of his life became a prominent proponent of the technology. Eastwood’s designs, how they correlate to the ideals of efficiency, economy and elegance, and how he integrated mathematical theory into his design methodology comprise the focus of this paper. In addition, issues of visual appearance and their effect upon professional acceptance of Eastwood’s design are also considered. By employing the concept of structural art as a prism for studying multiple arch dams, the article elucidates an important aspect of hydraulic engineering history. Barrages & Reservoirs / Concrete Structures / Dams / History
MacKenzie, Alistair 2009 Engineering ‘the aerodrome of democracy’, Canada 1939-1944. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.147-155. (August 2009) The British Commonwealth air training plan was created to address the critical shortage of trained flyers that existed at the outbreak of World War II. As the expansion of existing training facilities in areas likely to be subject to enemy attack was unlikely to be satisfactory, an agreement was reached between Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand to provide training facilities in Canada. Initial requirements were for 58 airfields, one to be complete by May 1940, 37 by the end of 1941 and the remaining 20 by April 1942. The extent of this civil engineering challenge is highlighted by the fact that, in 1939, the Royal Canadian Air Force possessed only five airfields. However, not only were the original targets achieved, they were surpassed in both scope and time. On completion, 88 ‘main’ airfields were in use; as most of these airfields required at least one ‘satellite’ field with many of the facilities of the main fields, the grand total was 176 airfields. In the words of President Roosevelt, Canada had become ‘the aerodrome of democracy’. As airfields were constructed in every province of Canada, planning and logistical problems were immense. Standardisation of design for airfield layout, prefabrication of components for hangars and other airfield structures, a centralised management organisation and the application of what, today, we would describe as modern construction project management techniques all helped Canada’s civil engineers to successfully complete this Herculean task. Airports / Buildings, Structures & Design / History
Roberts, Gwilym 2009 St Pancras Station: Victorian ‘cathedral of the railways’. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.157-166. (August 2009) Completed in October 1868, St Pancras station was among the last of London’s rail termini to be constructed. The superstructure inspired the designers of other railway termini being planned at the time, including those in New York, Glasgow, Manchester and Paris. This paper describes the construction of the terminus and the adjacent Midland Grand Hotel, together with their decline and recent regeneration so as to again become the ‘cathedral of the railways’. History / Rail & Bus Stations / Urban Regeneration
Buonopane, Stephen 2009 Briefing: ASCE history and heritage committee. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.173-174 (November 2009) This briefing looks at the objectives and current activities of the history and heritage committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). History / Biography
Fuchs, Helmut V. 2009 Briefing: Did the ancient Greeks know acoustics better? Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.175-178 (November 2009) For tourists visiting excavated ancient Greek or Roman sites, the extraordinary speech intelligibility experienced in an (unroofed) amphitheatre – no matter how little is preserved of its original structure and outfit – is always a highlight. The article argues that the Greeks and Romans did indeed know more about acoustics without the theoretical background we have today. This knowledge has obviously been lost over the centuries, despite the powerful computer simulation tools now available to any ambitious acoustician. It is suggested that acoustic textbooks and standards be revised as far as recommended reverberation times and spectra are concerned. Buildings, Structures & Design / History
Donald, Philip T. 2009 The Irish coal canals. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.179-188 (November 2009) Inland navigation systems were built in Ireland in the eighteenth century with the specific intention of transporting coal to Dublin from the recently discovered coal deposits in east County Tyrone. The two interlinked canal systems were the Newry navigation and the Tyrone navigation with Lough Neagh in between. The Newry navigation comprised four elements : the 29 km long canal from Portadown to Newry, the water supply for the summit length, the shipping basin at Newry and the 5•2 km long ship canal leading to Carlingford Lough and the open sea. The Tyrone navigation comprised three elements: the 7 km length of the Coalisland Canal from the River Bann to Coalisland, the Coalisland basin and Ducart’s Canal beyond Coalisland to the principal coalfield. This paper gives an outline of the background, which showed the need for the canals, their construction, the commercial outcome and their ultimate decline, the current state of repair and future prospects. History / Waterways & Canals
Länge, John, & Lazarus, Deborah 2009 St Pancras Renaissance hotel, London – a future for the past. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.189-197 (November 2009) This paper looks at the process of appraisal, both in general and in the particular case where it is used to justify a new use for a redundant historic building. The focus of the paper is St Pancras Chambers in London, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the 1860s. Originally one of the great railway hotels, the building was taken into use as offices after the hotel closed in 1935. In the 1980s it was vacated and remained unoccupied for a number of years, with significant deterioration occurring. The building, now grade 1 listed, is undergoing restoration some 140 years after its original design to transform it back to a luxury hotel, the St Pancras Renaissance hotel, with a level of servicing consistent with modern expectations. The work is taking place in close consultation with English Heritage. Intervention has been limited to the extent that this can be sensibly justified, and alterations are generally reversible. The appraisal has focused on the Moreland floors and the condition of the timber roof trusses. The paper sets out the methodology adopted to justify the continuing use of the building in order to give a ‘future for the past’ to this great Victorian building. Conservation / History / Strength and Testing of Materials
Charles, J. Andrew 2009 Robert Rawlinson and the UK public health revolution. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.199-206 (November 2009) Robert Rawlinson was the acknowledged leader of the UK revolution in public health engineering, which transformed the lives, and particularly the life expectancy, of the people living in the towns and cities of England during the Victorian age. Having grown up in a poor Lancashire family, Rawlinson commenced work as a stonemason. The crucial change to professional work came at the age of 21 years when he obtained employment in the Liverpool dock engineer’s office. In 1848, he became an engineering inspector for the newly formed General Board of Health. From that time most of Rawlinson’s work was in government service: he was a member of the Crimean sanitary commission, the organiser of public works for relief employment during the Lancashire cotton famine and chairman of the first rivers pollution commission. For many years he was the chief engineering inspector to the Local Government Board. There was a close connection between his work and the activities of many of the influential people of his day including Lord Shaftesbury and Florence Nightingale. Pollution / Public Health / Sewers & Drains
Merrifield, Arthur L.R. 2009 New Zealand’s North Island main trunk railway: 1870-1908. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.207-219 (November 2009) Completion of the Union Pacific railway in the USA in 1869 was seen to hold lessons for New Zealand’s colonial government. A policy of immigration and public works funded from loans was instituted in 1870. A network of railways would be built to open up land for settlement. One such was the North Island main trunk line, linking Auckland and Wellington – the two main centres in the North Island. It took until 1908 to complete the 680km route. As described in this paper, building the line was a major adventure as natural and man-made difficulties were gradually overcome. Location surveyors often worked at risk of their lives as not all Maori accepted the agreement between tribal leaders and the government that work could start. For many years government was uncertain where the best route lay. The engineers had to surmount very difficult topography, the geology of very young rocks and scarcity of funding. Eventually, after locally trained engineers overcame the worst engineering problems, the date that the first through train could run became the focus of a wager between the minister of public works and one of his resident engineers. Developing Countries / History / Rail Systems
Wiltshire, Richard Lyman, & Scott, Gregg Alan 2009 US Bureau of Reclamation dams in the American west. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH4, pp.221-228 (November 2009) This paper chronicles the Bureau of Reclamation’s achievements and contributions in the evolution and advancement of dam engineering during the design and construction of water projects, largely in the twentieth century, to supply water and reclaim the arid lands of the western USA. These contributions and advancements had a significant effect on the rest of the world. The paper first discusses the bureau’s masonry and concrete dams and briefly describes the more important dams constructed in each decade, along with how they affected the evolution of concrete dam analysis, modelling, design and construction. The bureau’s embankment dams are discussed second, briefly describing the more important dams constructed in each decade, along with how they affected the evolution of embankment dam analysis, design and construction. The paper discusses the early empirical and analytical dam designs, site investigations and laboratory testing, the introduction of soil and rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering, foundation treatment, seismic considerations, as well as lessons learned from the Teton dam failure. Related topics such as the evolution of dam instrumentation and monitoring, and a brief history of the bureau’s publications associated with concrete and embankment dam engineering are discussed in the paper. History / Dams, Barrages and Reservoirs / Water Supply
Ibarra-Sevilla, B. 2013 The first ribbed vaults in the Americas: craft skills and construction processes of indigenous people in the Mixtec region of southern Mexico. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 1, pp1-26 The article examines the introduction of European construction to Mexico in the 16th C, using three buildings with elaborate ribbed vaults built between 1550 and 1580.. What did the Spanish masters need to teach; how did the transfer of technology happen; what did the indigenous people know and what did they need to learn Mexico Mexican indigenous Spanish Spain 16th technology ribbed vaults
Nina Baker 2006 The production cycles of the Scottish construction industry, 1802-2002. Baker, N. & Agapiou, A, 2nd International Conference of Construction History, Cambridge, 2006
Nina Baker 2018 Glasgow city chambers: The construction and building services history of a major municipal building from the Victorian period. Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories – Wouters, Van de Voorde, Bertels et al. (Eds). 2018 6th International Congress of Construction History, Brussels, Belgium, ISBN 978-1-138-33230-0
Nina Baker 2006 Women Nailmakers in 19th Century Scotland. Baker, N. The Tool & Trades History Society: TATHS newsletter 93, 2006, pp16-18.
Nina Baker 2009 More than Pioneers: A Hundred Years of Women at Work in the Scottish Building Industry (1820-1920). Construction Information Quarterly, vol 11, issue 4, 181-185, CIQ paper 250. CIOB, 2009.
Chrimes, Mike 2009 Ahead of the game—masonry dam design in the British colonies 1800–1900, part 1: 1800–1872. Dams and Reservoirs, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp. 55-66 (June 2009) British dam practice in the nineteenth century was dominated by the use of earth embankments with puddle clay cores. Theoretical approaches to masonry dam design developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, therefore had little immediate impact on British practice (although they were commented on by Rankine). However, British engineers working overseas often benefited from advanced academic training, at the military colleges, the East India Company’s seminary, Addiscombe, and later the Cooper’s Hill College, and made more widespread use of masonry structures. Differing geological conditions, geography and cost all played their part, but the overall impression is one of innovation that at times astounded the UK engineering establishment. This paper chronicles the work of the pioneers of colonial dam design in the context of the history of masonry dams. Part one describes developments owing to the discovery of the ‘rational method’. Dams & Reservoirs
Chrimes, Mike 2009 Ahead of the game – masonry dam design in the British colonies 1800–1900, part 2: 1872–1900 Dams and Reservoirs, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp. 171-183 (December 2009) British dam practice in the nineteenth century was dominated by the use of earth embankments. The theoretical approaches to masonry dam design developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, although commented on by Rankine, therefore had little immediate impact on British practice. However, British engineers working overseas made more widespread use of masonry structures. Differing geological conditions, geography and cost all played their part, but the overall impression is one of innovation that at times astounded the UK engineering establishment. This paper chronicles the work of the pioneers of colonial dam design in the context of the history of masonry dams. The first part of this paper (Dams and Reservoirs, 2009, 19, No. 2, 55–66) described developments down to the introduction of the ‘rational method’; this part describes how dam design changed in the next 30 years. Dams & Reservoirs
Huerta, Santiago 2010 The safety of masonry buttresses. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH1, pp.3-24 (February 2010) The vault is the main element in most historical buildings. Masonry vaults exert an inclined thrust that must be resisted by a substantial mass of masonry: the buttress. The buttress system assures the safety of the whole construction. Most traditional structural design rules addressed the problem of buttress design. Today, an architect or engineer assessing the structural safety of a historical construction needs to estimate the safety of the buttress system with accuracy. This is not an easy matter. Among other possible failures, a buttress may fracture under certain conditions with a substantial loss of stability, it may show a certain leaning or it may be separated from the wall. Furthermore, buttress systems are complex structures – a combination of walls and counterforts, flying buttresses, etc. – made of different types of masonry, and their assessment cannot be handled in an abstract way. This paper outlines the development of buttress design since around 1700 to explain the main approaches used and to provide a historical context. The paper then goes on to summarise the state-of-the-art in modern masonry buttress analysis and to discuss estimations of safety. Buildings, Structures & Design / Failures / History
Foti, Dora; Mongelli, Michele, & Paparella, Vito 2010 Shear assessment of Della Vittoria stadium, Bari, Italy. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH1, pp.25-37 (February 2010) Modern buildings are characterised by their use of reinforced concrete (RC) as a novel and versatile building material. In assessments of existing buildings, the most critical structures in terms of shear resistance are those designed in the first half of the last century, when RC theory and detailing rules were not then well established. This study considers the issues related to the gradual understanding of shear behaviour, with particular reference to buildings constructed in Bari, Italy in the period 1920–1960, and aims to emphasise the vulnerability at a territorial scale of structural typologies designed only to vertical loadings. Subsequently, the shear resistance verification of the structural elements of a typical frame of the stadium Della Vittoria, Bari, is investigated according to new Italian and American design codes and the recently proposed Arslan’s equation. The results are compared with those included in the original calculation report (written according to a 1930 royal decree). The paper ends with a detailed commentary on lack of compliance with the ‘capacity design’ philosophy. Concrete Structures / Seismic Engineering / Stress Analysis
Bradford, William, Bridgeman, John, & Gaterell, M 2010 A review of the 1892 water demand forecast for Birmingham. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH1, pp.39-49 (February 2010) The water demand forecast forms half of the supply–demand balance used for developing a long-term water resources plan, but historical water demand forecasts attracted less analytical attention than historical water supply issues. This paper is a critical review of the water demand forecast for the city of Birmingham, which was presented to Parliament by James Mansergh in 1892 – when demand was growing by 3% per annum and the headroom of supply over demand was approaching zero – to justify the need for one of the largest and most controversial water resources schemes in the UK, the Elan Valley reservoirs in Mid-Wales. The first phase was commissioned in 1904. Today, the full scheme supplies water to over a million people in Birmingham, and will continue to do so well into the twenty-first century, long after the 60 to 70 years originally expected by Mansergh. The results of this analysis suggest that by demonstrating an understanding of the drivers of demand growth, Mansergh was able to convince Parliament that his assumptions about the scale of Birmingham’s future demand growth were reasonable. A comparison of the 1892 forecast with actual annual average demand up to Mansergh’s horizon in 1955 shows that the profile of his forecast was remarkably accurate. Dams, Barrages & Reservoirs / Hydrology & Water Resources / Water Supply
Barr, Ben 2010 Conway and Britannia tubular bridges: Stephenson’s team. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH1, pp.51-60 (February 2010) The paper reviews the significant achievements of Robert Stephenson and his team in the innovative design and construction of Conway and Britannia tubular bridges. The text is based on extensive extracts taken from contemporary accounts by two members of Stephenson’s team, William Fairbairn and Edwin Clark. The paper describes the sequence of model tests (from initial small-scale tests, followed by one-sixth scale tests to tests on the first Conway tube) and the methods used to overcome the problems of buckling that were identified in the experimental work. The innovative method of floating and raising the tubes into their final location is also reported. In addition to strength and stiffness considerations, Stephenson’s team also investigated the effects of temperature and wind loading and in these studies developed an accurate method of measuring deflections. It is suggested that the design and construction of Conway and Britannia Bridges could provide an excellent case study for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying structural behaviour and, in particular, the problems associated with buckling. Bridges / History
Orr, David Malcolm 2010 The Antrim Coast Road – a civil engineering legacy. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.65-69 (May 2010) In the early 1800s, the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland conceived the idea of building the Antrim Coast Road to open up the Glens of Antrim, to give better access for the military, and to give work to the unemployed. Their civil engineer, William Bald, rose to the challenge and completed the 40 km route between 1832 and 1842. Bald was born in Burntisland in Fife in 1789. He was a civil engineer and surveyor who came to Ireland aged 20 to complete the trigonometrical survey of County Mayo. Bald had the vision of building the road along the foot of the cliffs, some of them over 100 m high. For many, it was an incredible idea. Previous plans were to build the road some distance inland, but this would have meant steep gradients as the road traversed the valleys of the Glens. The Antrim Coast Road was completed in 1842 and William Bald left to practice in Scotland and France. He died in 1857 and is buried in Highgate Cemetery in London. History / Infrastructure Planning / Roads & Highways
McKay, Colin 2010 Highway design by highwaymen. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.71-75 (May 2010) This paper presents an outline of the style of work in highway design that prevailed after World War II until approximately the mid-1960s – definitely before the days of computers, hand calculators and total-station surveying. History / Land Surveying / Roads & Highways
Harshbarger, J. Patrick 2010 Two pioneering American roadways. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.77-85 (May 2010) This paper discusses the historical background and significance of Delaware’s DuPont Highway (1908–23) and New Jersey’s Route 1 extension (1923–32). Thomas Coleman du Pont envisioned a multi-modal roadway that was far ahead of its time, including the use of bypasses, a concept previously only used by railroads. The Route 1 extension, which was designed by an engineering team led by William G. Sloan of the New Jersey State Highway Commission, featured the innovative use of economic theories and actual traffic studies to guide the design of one of America’s first limited-access motorways. It was planned using economic theories of location adapted from railroad practices. Biography / History / Roads & Highways
Chrimes, Mike 2010 Autostrade: the Italian interwar achievement. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.87-104 (May 2010) Italian motorways were the first limited access highways in the world. This paper narrates their development, describes their essential features, and makes some observations on their significance. Bridges / History / Roads & Highways
Davis, Timothy 2010 Documenting New York’s Bronx River Parkway, USA. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.105-116 (May 2010) New York’s Bronx River Parkway was a seminal development in the history of the modern motorway. Conceived in 1906 and completed in 1925, the parkway was the first public project to provide a large-scale demonstration of the essential components of modern motorway design: strict limitations on access and egress, grade-separated interchanges, flowing horizontal and vertical curvature geared toward safe and pleasurable high-speed travel, and a broad publically owned right-of-way for better control of the roadside environment and greater flexibility in alignment and location. The Bronx River Parkway was embraced by the motoring public, hailed by contemporary design professionals, and celebrated by subsequent historians. In recognition of the parkway’s significance, the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) conducted a multi-disciplinary documentation project in 2001. HAER produced large-format photographs, a detailed historical report, and measured and interpretive drawings depicting construction details, development processes, and design concepts. The project was part of a larger effort to document historic American roadways including National Park Service park roads and parkways, Columbia River Highway, Merritt Parkway, Taconic State Parkway, and the Arroyo Seco Parkway/Pasadena Freeway. This documentation can serve as a valuable model for future efforts to document and interpret twentieth century motorways and other civil engineering resources. Biography / History / Roads & Highways
Yeadon, Harry Leslie 2010 Preston By-pass: the first motorway in the UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.117-128 (May 2010) The paper outlines the history of motorways from the early part of the twentieth century, when the internal combustion engine revolutionised road transport. In the UK at that time, there was a great deal of interest in the possibility of constructing roads for use only by motor vehicles. However, due to the opposition of railway companies, no action was taken by successive governments, and Italy led the way by opening the first autostrada in 1924. During the 1930s, systems of motorways were developed in Germany and the USA. World War 2 prevented any positive action in the UK, but professional institutions and the Ministry of Transport continued planning UK transport needs for the post-war period. Lancashire County Council had concerns about congestion and the serious accident record of the A6/A49 north–south route through the county. James Drake, appointed County Surveyor and Bridgemaster in 1945, prepared a road plan with priority given to the building of a 62 mile (99 km) long motorway. In the period of financial restraint then prevailing, the project was to be carried forward by constructing a series of by-passes (with Preston By-pass as the first) that could be linked when finance became available. The scheme was included in the Minister’s expanded road programme as an ‘experiment’ for all future motorways. Construction began in 1956 and the motorway was opened in December 1958. The ‘experiment’ was an undoubted success and many important lessons were learned. History / Roads & Highways / Transport Planning
Soper, Robin H. 2010 The M1: Britain’s first inter-urban motorway. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH2, pp.129-134 (May 2010) This article explores the origin and concept of motorways in the UK and looks back over half a century to the 1950s when part of the first inter-urban motorway in England, the M1, was designed and built. The paper describes the steps leading to the start of construction, the route and some aspects of the construction, highlighting some of the differences between this early pioneering work and present-day requirements. In particular, progress in survey methods, means of calculation and construction plant is highlighted. The paper also discusses the types of bridges used in this early scheme, the reasons for their choice and the ways in which they contributed to the very rapid construction for such a large project. Some of the ancillary items required to enable the road to be safely used for over 50 years of increasing traffic loads are also described. History / Infrastructure Planning / Roads & Highways
Nina Baker 2012 Who paints the house? Scotswomen as Housepainters and Decorators from 1820, Baker, N., Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Construction History, Paris, July 2012.
Nina Baker 2017 True Grit: women in quarrying in 1930s England and 1880s Scotland. Baker, N. 2017. The Construction Historian, 2017, 2, 7-9.
M. Bowley 1996 The British building industry. Cambridge University Press, 1966.
J. Bowyer 1973 A history of building.
N.J. Morgan 1990 Construction Industry sector essay, in Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography Vol2, edited by Slaven and Checkland.
J.R. Newman 1960 The NAOP Heritage, a short historical review of the growth and development of the National Association of Operative Plasterers 1860-1960.
J. Parry Lewis 1965 Building Cycles and Britain’s growth.
M. Robertson 1936 Building and contracting. Chapter VIII in A study of industrial Edinburgh 1923-34, vol 1, edited by N. Milnes.
English Heritage 2008 Historic building engineering systems and equipment: heating and ventilation.
Hyslop, E. K., et al. 2006 Safeguarding Glasgow’s Stone Built Heritage Skills and Materials Requirements. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/06/077.
Palmer, M., & West, I. 2016 Technology in the Country House.
Knoop, D. & Jones, G. P. 1949 The Medieval mason.
Munchmeyer, A., 2013 The masons’ marks in the western part of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostella: an approach to its construction history. Construction History, VFol 28 No. 2, pp 1-22 Archaeological investigation in the western parts of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostella shows to what extent the documentation of masons’ marks can help to understand the cathedral and its construction history. Distinct masons’ marks relate the west crypt to the narthex and the gallery. In addition to visible structural changes in the masonry, they provide secondary evidence for the different phases of construction. Analysis of the fabric and masons’ marks show that the genesis of the Portico de la Gloria is the result of a structural intervention led by Master Mateo at the end of the 12th Century, which changed the west end including the crypt. Masonry, masons’ marks, archaeological investigation, Bauforschung, stratigraphic research, cathedral, Santiago de Compostella, Spain
Campbell, J.W.P. 2013 The supply of stone for the rebuilding of St Paul’s Cathedral 1675-1710. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 2, pp 23-50 The paper provides the first detailed account of the supply of stone used to rebuild St Paul’s cathedral after the Great Fire of London. Many different types of stone were employed. Working directly from archival sources, it shows how each type of stone was quarried and transported and the problems that arose, and provides the first analysis of the amounts of stone quarried. The issues of stone supply discussed are not unique to St Paul’s; the same types of stone were being widely used elsewhere in the same period. The paper explains why the supply of stone is a significant factor in understanding why St Paul’s took over 35 years to construct. Quarrying, stone, 17th century, seventeenth, St Paul’s Cathedral, Portland, Beer, Ketton, Burford, Headington, Tadcaster, Reigate, Caen, Kentish Rag, marbles, stone merchants, stone types
Patino, G., L. 2013 Helical industrial chimneys in Spain. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 2, pp 51-78. The paper reviews the origin of the helical industrial chimney, a type unique to Spain, and illustrates their various type of construction. In interview with the author, one of the last great chimney builders explains how to erect helical chimneys using the tool he invented for the purpose. chimney, Spain, helical, brickwork, bricks, Valencia, 19th C 20th C, industrial
Alegre, A., and Heitor, T. 2013 The evolution of secondary school building construction in Portugal in the 20th century: from traditional to industrial. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 2, pp 79-104 The paper provides an overview of the school building construction process in Portugal and the influence of French and British models in its development during the 20th century. Focusing on the history and evolution of secondary school building construction in Portugal, it aims to analyse the architecture - construction relationship assuming its relevance in the history of construction, structural design and building practice. French and British models proved to be significantfor the analysis and characterisation of the Portuguese school building process. The beaux-arts principles, Viollet-le-Duc’s rationalism and typological concerns from French developments of the 19th century, as well as modern architecture from the 1930s, had a direct influence on Portuguese developments. The post-war English experience in school building construction had an important impact in Portugal in both design and production procedures from the 1960s, based on a new design methodology and the adoption of industrialised and rationalised building production system, effective cost and planning control procedures. schools, Portugal, design, standardisation, 20th century, construction-architecture relationship
Langenberg, S. 2013 The hidden potential of of building systems: the Marburg Building System as an example. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 2, pp 105-126 The paper presents a defence of ’system’ buildings of the 1960s. While expressive individual buildings and prototypes, as well as the creations of famous architects and large-scale utopian visions from the boom years, seem to gain more and more recognition, the large mass of system buildings, constructed at the same time or subsequently, are hardly appreciated- despite the fact that their underlying core concepts aimed at openness,growth and modification, and were therefore intrinsically sustainable and long-lasting. The buildings of the Lahnberge Campus of Marburg University were the first to the building system devised by Helmut Spieker, known as the Marburg Building System, based on the tartan grid. These buildings are used as a basis for the investigation of the hidden potential of building systems and to discuss opportunities for their continued use and development in the 21st century University masterplanning, master-planning, Marburg, Germany, 1960s, systems, pre-fabrication, prefabrication, conservation, Spieker
Coste, A. 2013 The Llambi Company, Barcelona: a unique relationship between a manufacturer of blinds and shutters, and architects.Construction History, Vol 28 No. 2, pp 127-144 The paper examines the relationship between the Llambi shutter company of Catalonia and the Catalan architect Josep Antonio Coderch (1913-1984) and the unique approach to the design and construction of buildings fostered by it, specifically the separation of the structure and its envelope. shutters, blinds, Spain, Spanish modern, Llambi, Coderch, double-skin facade
Webster, S.V. 2013 The Secret Lives of Buildings in Colonial Quito. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 3, pp 21-46 The study considers the historiography of Quito’s colonial architecture in the light of contemporary documents and chronicles and offers an alternative readings that counter traditional assessments of its buildings as exemplifying European dominance. Numerous case studies revise earlier accounts of the city’s construction history and document the crucial and extensive contribution of Andean masters. The study argues that Andean dominance of the people and processes of architectural production in the city replicated ancestral patterns of socio-economic power; thus, Andeans perceived Quito’s colonial buildings from a vantage point quite distinct from that of their Spanish and European contemporaries. Ecuador, Quito, colonial, indigenous, authorship
Middleton, R. 2013 The first history of construction?. A memoir by Jean Rondelet. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 3, pp 47-68 In 1799 the Institute set as an essay, the history of construction from the earliest times. Jean Rondelet won the prize, in July 1808, with a 90 page essay, yet unpublished, that would seem to be the first attempt to write a history of construction. He investigated timber construction, stone building techniques - in particular, the moving of stones by the Egyptians - then building with bricks, sun-dried and kiln-dried, from Babylon onwards, through to the churches of Constantinople and Ravenna. There is an acknowledgement of the sklil of the Gothic masons, but little more of note. The 18th C advances in developing a theory of structurees are reduced to no more than a string of names - Coulomb missing. historiography, Rondelet, France, 18th, theory, pise, history
Klosky, J.L. and Klosky, W.E. 2013 Men of action: French influence and the founding of American civil and military engineering. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 3, pp 69-88 The study traces the beginnings of formal engineering practice and military construction in the United States from the cvoming of the French engineers to the establishment of the Army Corps of Engineers and West Point; the likely source of General Putnam’s fortifications at Boston and the relationship between Duportail and Kosciuszko are also mentioned. early American engineers and professors are discussed, as is the strong connection between Fremnch and American engineering education in the early 19th C. The capstone to the early growth of engineering as a discipline in the United States came as the founding of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1852. America, USA, US, 18th, 19th, Duportail, Crozet, Mahan, Kosciuszko, French, volunteers, civil, military, engieering
Barjot, D. 2013 Why was the world construction industry dominated by European leaders?: The development of the largest European firms from the late 19th to the early 21st centuries. Construction History, Vol 28 No. 3, pp 89-114 The paper analyses the most important factors contributing to the dominance of the world construction history by European companies, particularly in the production and distribution of raw materials until c. 2007-8 and the shift into services and public works. The paper concludes that the following are critical factors: technological innovation, control of technological processes, better risk management, the informed support of banks, higher-skilled workforce and engineers, the decisive role of colonial experiences, and state economic support. Nonetheless, despite its successful characteristics, European leadership of the industry (has) remained fragile. . Europe, Bouyges, Skanska Vinci, industry, globalisation, globalization, world, firm, company
Sims, F.A. 2003 The Motorway Achievement – Motorway Bridges, their Superstructures and the People involved – a historical record file:///C:/Users/User/AppData/Local/Temp/MotorwayBridges.pdf This historical record is a ‘broad brush’ attempt to record the development of bridge superstructures over almost half a century and covers steel, concrete and composite constructions and ranges from the smallest underbridge to the largest suspension bridge. The CD provides a comprehensive history of bridge engineering in the United Kingdom during the post-War period. Brief descriptions are given of many of the important bridges and the design and construction problems encountered. Developments in analysis, new materials and techniques, and the organisation of research and the construction industry are all covered. There has been much new thinking in bridge and structural engineering and enormous achievements in analysis, new materials and new techniques, the majority of which are recorded, but there have also been some disturbing and damaging occurrences, judged by some to have resulted from the pace of development. Those referred to in this work include box girder failures, falsework collapses, problems with grouting post-tensioned cables, the damaging effects of the use of de-icing salts, the adequacy of bridge deck waterproofing and associated problems of deck joints. The effects of changes in increased traffic and vehicle loadings are also explored. The role of major clients like the Ministry of Transport, and specialist organisations and research bodies, including universities and colleges, are explored. Some of these organisations have so changed that the significance of their role can only be understood by reference to this work - the Cement and Concrete Association being the most obvious example. Thorough referencing enables the researcher to follow up any area of interest within the civil and structural engineering fields covered. The names of prominent people involved during this significant and exciting time for British engineering are recorded. Only available in CD format from the Motorway Archive Trust at [email protected]
Predari, G., Mochi, G., and Gulli, R. 2014 The transformation process of masonry buildings in historic towns: the case of Medicina in northern Italy. Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 1-20 The paper studies the evolutionary processes affecting the modification of medieval masonry buildings in the Po valley of northern Italy during the 18th C, at the level of individual buildings and town-wide. It presents a brief introduction to brick construction in the area, then examines how buildings and technology adapted to external changes, using Medicina as a case-study. masonry, brick, Po valley, Medicina, Italy, medieval, 18th
Garcia, N., J. 2014 Traces of stereotomy: descriptive geometry drawings in the workshop notebook of the Tornes family from Jaca in north-eastern Spain (c.1650-1750). Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 21-38 The paper presents examples from, and an analysis of, the workshop book of the Tornes family of architects in northern Spain between the mid 17th and mid 18th centuries, together with background information on some of the buildings they constructed. The paper suggests, inter alia, that the technically demanding descriptive geometry employed in the art of stereotomy was widely known in Spain at the time, and that the Tornes family were clearly familiar with the more well-known architectural treatises of the time. stereotomy, stone cutting, drawings, notebook, Aragon, Spain, 17th 18th, Tornes
Bill, N. 2014 Laminated timber arch bridges of Joseph Locke (1805-60) and his assistants. Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 39-62. The paper describes and examines the development of the laminated timber railway bridge in Britain during the early 19th C, with particular reference to the work of the engineer Joseph Locke, who specialised in them. The paper discusses their performance and longevity, and also the manner in which Locke refined and improved the designs, influencing engineers in Britain and abroad. Locke, Jee, Errington, laminated timber, railway, viaduct, 19th, Britain, France, bridge, Vignoles
Nazidizaji, A., Tome, A., and Regateiro, F. 2014 The architecture and construction processes of the vernacualr Shikili Houses in Gilan, northern Iran. Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 63-82. The paper studies and explains the design, construction and structural behaviour of the late 19th to early 20th C vernacular timber houses of the Gilan area of northern Iran, with particular attention to the flexible foundations. The paper examines how climate, culture and materials. Shikili, house, foundation, vernacular, Gilan, Iran, 19th 20th , timber, flexible
Trout, E.A.R 2014 The Deutscher Ausschuss fur Eisenbeton (German Committee for Reinforced Concrete), 1907-1945, Part 2: Between the Wars. Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 83-103 The second of two papers on the subject (See CH Vol 29, No.1) that examines the foundations, research, publications and key personalities of the DAfE, reflecting its changing relationship with a rapidly changing and expanding German concrete industry during the first half of the 20th C. It brings to the attention of the Anglophone world a record of achievement that, whilst recognised in the German-speaking world, is less well-known abroad. The first paper took us up to WW1: this paper continues the story to the end of WW2, beginning with the influence of wartime experience on standards and practice, the enhanced role of the blast furnace slag industry after the acceptance of its waste product as a cement binder in 1916. It then reviews research in the architecturally vibrant 1920s, pre-stressing in the 1930s, the autobahns and the West Wall. The paper ends with an appreciation of Otto Graf as the figure linking pre-war research to a post-war generation, anticipating the revival of the renamed Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton. Germany, reinforced, concrete, standards, regulations, 20th
Smyth, F. 2014 More than "a Machine for living in": science, noise and experimental housing in 1930s Britain. Construction History, Vol 29 No. 2, pp 103-120. The paper presents and overview of the social and scientific context in which the earliest British construction standards for sound insulation evolved. It discusses the first official recommendations to reduce noise in dwellings, the controversy surrounding publication, and the experimental work that underpinned the development of minimum performance standards. acoustics, sound insulation, experimental housing, Hope Bagenal, Burbage House, Britain, 1930s
Ginovart, J.L, I., Jover, A.C., and Pla, S.C. 2015 Placing the keystones of the vault over the presbytery in Tortosa Cathedral, Spain (1428-40). Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 1-22 The article explains how the ambulatory of Gothic cathedral of Tortosa (b. 1345-1441) was constructed around and over that of the pre-existing Romanesque cathedral. Construction involved substantial temporary works and the innovative use of a central keystone - known as the ’clau major’ - weighing 9 tonnes, supported on a central pillar - the ’pilar major’. Design, creation and installation of the keystone took 12 years and is believed to have been unprecedented. The article presents historical information, including the names of the principle people involved, and an archaeological analysis of the structure based on 3D metric surveys. cathedral, gothic, temporary works, keystone, Tortosa, Spain, Pasqual, Xulbi, Santalina, BIM
Melo, A.S. and Ribiero, M. do. C., 2015 Late medieval construction site management at the monastery of Jeronimos, Lisbon. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 23-38 Through analysis of the exceptional accounts of 1517 relating to the construction of the monastery of Jeronimos (Lisbon), the paper examines the main characteristics of a model of construction site management that appears to have been new at that time. In the later Middle Ages there appears to have been two main models of site organisation: one, older and more widespread, was centralised and pyramidal; the other, apparently more recent, used several autonomous teams working simultaneously on specific parts or sections of the building. This appears to have been implemented by Joao de Castilho (1470-1552), possibly for the first time in Portugal, but with some parallels elsewhere in Europe. organisation, organization, medieval, Middle Ages, 16th, labour, cathedral, Portugal, management, Castilho
Neild, R. 2015 How Thomas Nevile built Trinity College, Cambridge. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 39-52 The paper examines the consequences of Thomas Nevile’s decision to use clunch (rock chalk) as the main wall material during his construction of the Great Court and Nevile’s Court for Trinity College, c. 1593-1615. The decision, enforced by the lack of freestone in east Anglia, lead to chronic structural problems and recurrent repairs, but still proved cheaper than building with imported stone. Trinity College, Cambridge, 16th, 17th, Nevile, costs, economics, oolitic limestone, brick, clunch, chalk, Fenland, waterways, transport
Nobile, M.R. and Bares, M., M. 2015 The use of ’false vaults’ in 18th century buildings in Sicily. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 53-70 The paper discusses the use of lightweight vault structures in major civic buildings in Sicily during the 17th and 18th century as a response to recurrent earthquakes, examining the written influences, imported and local construction practice and the principle people involved in this innovative solution to a major problem Sicily, earthquake, false vaults, treatises, Gagliardi, 17th, 18th, church
Mizuta, S. 2015 Patent slipways of Bakumatsu and Meiji Japan, 1861-1900s. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 71-92 The paper examines the introduction of mechanically powered slipways for removing ships from the water, from Britain to Japan in the late 19th century, and finds those built in Japan using a mix of native techniques and imported technology, to be larger and more powerful than contemporary British models. Patent, slipway, Morton, Japan, Japanese, modernisation, Bakamatsu, Meiji, 1860s, 19th, civil, shipbuilding, technology transfer, engineering
Isaacs, N. 2015 Hollow concrete blocks in New Zealand, 1904-10. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 93-108 The paper examines the introduction of hollow concrete blocks made with US-patented machines to New Zealand in the early 20th C, specifically the marketing, economics, local peculiarities and the effect the technology had on the architecture and construction practice of New Zealand. concrete, blocks, New Zealand, 1900s, 20th, Harmon, Palmer, patents, USA, materials, imports
Extepare, L., Uranga, E.J., and Zuazua-Guisola, N. 2015 Marcel Breur and Jean Barets in Bayonne (1964-8): the use of architectural precast concrete panels in large public housing schemes. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 1, pp 109-126 The paper examines the introduction of the architect-specified pre-cast concrete panel to public housing schemes in France during the 1960s, and their success under competitive and cost-constrained conditions using an alternative method to that developed in the USA a few year’s before. It presents a brief historical introduction to the development of pre-cast concrete panels in Europe and America and then a detailed examination of Breuer’s contribution to the technique. Breuer, Barets, ZUP de Sainte-Croix, Bayonne, France, 1960s, 20th, pre-cast panel, precast, panel, concrete
Heyman, J. 2015 Strainer Arches. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 1-14 The article examines and explains the function of strainer arches in large masonry structures such as at the crossings of cathedrals, their historical development and the historical development of the codes used to calculate their thrusts. Masonry, thrust, statics, arches, bridges, strainer, Telford, Hooke, Brunel, Perronet, cathedral, calculation.
Chrimes, M. M. 2015 Architectural dilletantes::construction professionals in British India 1600-1910. Part 1. 1600-1860: The age of the dilletante. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 15-44 The article examines the role of military and civil engineers of the Honourable British east India Company in the design and construction of public buildings in India during the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries.By looking at the careers of some of those designers, conclusions are drawn about the professional training, architectural aspirations, structural approaches and project leadership of the creators of the buildings of the British Empire. Professions, civil engineers, architects, British India, 17th, 18th, 19th
Stoyanova, I, Wouters, I., and Bertels, I. 2015 Glazed wrought-iron arcades: building technologies and spatial effects. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 45-66 The paper explores the technology used to build and glaze the roofs of three well-known shopping arcades constructed between the 1820s and 1870s: The Gallerie d’Orleans in Paris (1828-29), the Royal Saint-Hubert Galleries in Brussels (1845-47) and the Gallerie Vittorio Emanuele in Milan (1865-77). The wrought iron construction and glazing technology of the three arcades are compared in detail, and the development of the structural systems and glazing techniques are reviewed, focusing especially on the different means of constraining the lateral thrusts exerted by the vaulted roof frames. The analysis shows how lateral thrust was managed without visible reinforcement, how the glazing bars evolved towards cruciform section, and how drip edges of the glass plates began to be treated decoratively. The paper concludes that these features contributed to a more striking appearance of the vaults from within the arcades and an enhanced monumental effect. glazing, arcades, 19th, Belgium, Italy, France, shops
Campo-Ruiz, I. 2015 Construction as a prototype: the novel approach of Sigurd Lewerentz to using building materials, especially for walls and windows, 1920-72. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 67-86 The paper examines the experimentation in construction by the Swedish engineer-architect Sigurd Lewerentz (1885-1975) by tracing his successive simplification of window frames, doors and wall construction between the late 1920s and the early 1970s. It explores his writings; the firm he established to manufacture barely-visible frames and structures; his involvement in the chapels of St Gertrud and St Knut in Malmo in 1943; and his later experimentation with unusual combinations of glass, timber, brick and mortar. Sigurd Lewerentz, Sweden, window, wall, prototype, materials, method, 20th
Berthier, S. 2015 Timber in the buildings of Jean Prouve: an industrial material. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 87-1096 The paper examines the innovative use of timber as prefabricated and often laminated elements of industrial form combined with other materials to create an original aesthetic, by the French architect Jean Prouve. Jean Prouve, Konrad Wachsmann, wood, timber, industrialisation, off-site construction, assembly, plywood, cross-laminated, laminated, pre-fabrication, prefabrication, France
Martin-Gomez, C. and Resano, D. 2015 The SEAT Dining Hall in Barcelona, 1956: innovative approaches to structure, the use of aluminium and building services. Construction History, Vol 30 No. 2, pp 107-131 The SEAT Dining Hall was the first structure to use aluminium in Spain and remains one of the most innovative and efficient buildings in the world with respect to its design, construction, use of materials and services. The paper explains its historical context, the design process and the people involved, specifically Cesar Ortiz-Echague Rubio, Manuel Berbero Rebolledo, Rafel de la Joya Castro, R. Valle Benitez, H. Herrera and Pedro Roca. . Aluminium, air-conditioning, services, Spain, Barcelona, SEAT, hygrothermic, 20th
Guo, Q. 2016 Interpreting roof tiles from the Qin state (c. 400-300BC) at Yongcheng in a comparative context. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 1-24 Yongcheng was the capital of the Qin state during the Warring States Period ( c. 400-300 BC), over a century before the Qin established the first centralised empire in China (221-206 BC). A large number of tiles was excavated there in in 1981-84 and 2005-6 and among these several ’new’ types have been identified. This study examines the recovered tiles in an attempt to understand the roofing system of the Qin state. The author focuses on the finds at Yongcheng while incorporating also a comparative approach. Based on architectural reasoning, two reconstructions of the Qin tiled roofing system are proposed. China, roof tiles, terracotta, Yongcheng, archaeology, Bauforschung, roofs, coverings
Heyman, J. 2016 The Crossing Space and the emergence of the modern professional architect and engineer. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 25-60 The period after the Great Fire of London saw the abolition of the medieval way of building, in which design and construction were in the hands of a single master - or a succession of masters, in the protracted building of a cathedral. Instead, the professional architect emerged, who made designs but was not himself a craftsman. At the same time, engineering science began slowly to contribute to architecture. A particular technical challenge was the ’crossing’ - the space formed at the intersection of the nave and transepts of a church. Before Wren no domes existed in England: their creation was totally beyond the capacity of a medieval (English) builder. The form of such does was examined by Wren’s ’partner’ Robert Hooke, and Wren designed many of these, of which the largest is that of St Paul’s Cathedral. Both men were architects and scientists, and between them they created the modern (English) building professional. Domes, crossing, cathedral, Wren, Hooke, 17th, professions, England, Britain.
Gudelj, J. 2016 The circulation of building materials: pozzolana in the Baroque Dubrovnik. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 61-74 The paper investigates the introduction into Early Modern building practice in the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) of pozzolana in the late 17th century. Documentary sources indicate that it was first sent to Dubrovnik - along with designs and a master-builder from Rome - for the rebuilding of the cathedral after the earthquake of 1667. Initially treated with scepticism by the local authorities, by the 18th century it was considered essential for hydraulic works, such as those commissioned from the Roman architect Pietro Passalacqua. Croatia, Dubrovnik, Ragusa, Pozzolana, 17th, 18th, earthquake, Stjepan Gradic, Pier Andrea Bufalini, Louvre, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Pietro Passalacqua, Rome, technology transfer
Bill, N. 2016 Timber bridge construction on British and Irish railways, 1840-1870: the scale of construction and factors influencing material selection. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 75-98 The paper demonstrates that, contrary to received wisdom, thousands of timber bridges were constructed across the British Isles in the 19th century. Using a database of all known examples, it presents a statistical analysis of how timber construction, timber species, structural forms and technical complexity varied with time for different applications, demonstrating that economy was not the sole reason for using timber. Britain, Ireland, 19th century, Railways, bridges, viaducts, timber, economics, economies, structures, species
Chrimes, M. M. 2016 Architectural dilletantes: construction professionals in British India 1600-1910. Part 2. 1860-1910: The advent of the professional. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 99-140 The second of two papers on British engineers in India, considers how British administrations in India managed the design of public buildings in the second half of the 19th century. For most of the period this was a responsibility of engineers in the Public Works Department, led by officials initially trained for military service. Much of the work was concerned with civil engineering, but there was also a demand for public buildings. The designers are generally referred to anachronistically as ’architects’ though most held engineering positions in the Indian armies or, latterly, public works departments. By looking at the careers of some of these ’architects’, conclusions can be drawn about the professional training, architectural inspiration, structural approaches and project leadership of the creators of the buildings of empire. From this, it is suggested that, before 1900, in a meaningful sense there were no architects of empire, but a cadre of engineers whose training enabled them to take on all tasks across the built environment. India, Raj, empire, British, professions, civil engineers, architects, education, training, 19th 20th
Uihlein, M. S. 2016 Elmer Lawrence Corthell (1840-1916) and the ambitions of a civil engineer. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 141-160 Elmer Lawrence Corthell was a renowned engineer who believed that engineering was crucial to the prosperity of the United States and that engineering had a responsibility to become a worthwhile profession. After a brief survey of his career, three specific periods that influenced his career and views on engineering are studied in detail: the Mississippi Jetties (1875-80), the Tehuantepec Ship Railway (1884-87) and his consulting work for the Argentine Republic (1900-02). In addition, three of his leadership efforts are considered: his attempts to establish a School of Architecture and Engineering at the University of Chicago (1889-1903); his chairmanship of the General Committee of the 1893 World’s Congress Auxiliary on Engineering; and his attempts to set-up an International Institute of Engineers and Architects in 1894. USA, America, civil engineering, education, training, profession, James B. Eads, University of Chicago, Corthell.
Plasencia-Lozano, P. 2016 An analysis of Merida’s iron railway bridge: an example of a Linville truss bridge in Spain. Construction History, Vol 31 No. 1, pp 161-172 The paper examines the process of design, construction and on-site assessment of the Merida iron railway bridge (1881-3) in Spain. Spain, Merida, railway, bridge, iron, John Cockerill, Eduardo de Perralta, 19th, Linville, Truss
Gil-Crespo, I.J. 2016 Islamic fortifications in Spain built of rammed-earth. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 1-22. The paper presents an archaeological analysis of surviving Islamic fortifications in Spain built of rammed-earth, identifying common characteristics of dimension, fabric, formwork and assembly that differ from medieval Christian rammed-earth construction and employ two dimensional modules: one, during the Emirate and Caliphate, based on the rassasi cubit (0.55m); the other during the Almoravid, Almohad and Nasrid kingdoms, based on the ma’muni cubit (0.45m) Spain, Islamic, rammed-earth, pise, fortifications, scaffolding, formwork, form-work, medieval
Jackson, M.J. and Young, B. 2016 The building of Durham Cathedral (1093-1133): the preliminary considerations. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 23-38. Based partly on a conference of construction professionals held in 1993, and enforced by a lack of contemporaneous written sources and published archaeological analysis, the paper presents a hypothetical explanation of how Durham Cathedral was built. It examines the political, geographical, technical, material, logistical and economic constraints effecting the location and form of the building. Britain, England, Durham, medieval, cathedral, masonry, quarries, haulage, preliminaries
Addis, B. 2016 Francesco di Giorgio’s contribution to the development of building engineering. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 39-58 The paper examines the role of Francesco di Giorgio de Martini (1439-1501) in the development of design manuals for military engineering and specifically geometric design rules for the abutments of masonry arches and vaults, and the use of perspective drawing as an essential design tool. Italy, 15th, Franceso di Giorgio di Martini, Da Vinci, Kyeser, Fontana, Taccola, Lechler, Gil, Brunelleschi, military, civil, masonry, Milan, calculation
Sosnowska, P., and Goemaere, E. 2016 The reconstruction of Brussels after the bombardment of 1695: an analysis of the recovery through a historical and archaeological study of the use of bricks. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 59-80 Through a combined historical and archaeological approach, the paper explains the mechanisms that allowed the city of Brussels to recover, quite rapidly, after the destruction caused by the bombardment of 1695. Two research approaches are used: the first - historical - analyses the measures established by the city and central government to promote the material reconstruction of the city; the second -archaeological - focuses on the on-site supply of materials, with a focus on bricks as the reference material. The authors demonstrate that local resources were heavily exploited but were not sufficient, necessitating the import of a significant amount of ’foreign’ material, the re-use of materials on a large scale and the adaptation of surviving structures. The authors draw conclusions about the organisational complexity of such a vast building site, especially the commercial network, the production capacity and the costs of building materials. Belgium, Brussel, Brussels, Bruxelles, materials, brick, 17th, 18th, archaeometry, archaeology, Bauforschung, re-use, reuse, spolia, reconstruction, urban, war, conflict
Calvo-Lopez, J., Tain-Guzman, M., Camiruaga-Oses, 2016 The eighteenth century full-scale tracings in the church of St Clare in Santiago de Compostela: execution drawings or design sketches?. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 81-106. The paper describes the full-scale masonry tracing found in the floor of the church in 2014, dated to c. 1719-24, and currently the largest known for the Early Modern Period. Using metric and photogrammetric analyses, the authors compare the drawings with the architectural details to which they relate, and suggest that the different versions for some details are design sketches and construction specifications. Spain, Santiago de Compostela, 18th century, tracings, floor, masonry, design, execution, Simon Rodriguez, church, management
Fatta, G., Campisi, T., and Vinci, C. 2016 Timbrel vaults in Sicily: analysis of a little known construction technique. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 107-133. The paper examines the introduction of the thin-shell tile ’timbrel’ or ’realine’ vault to Sicily from Spain in the late 15th century, together with the construction techniques and economics developed locally, partly as a response to earthquakes. Italy, Sicily, Spain, timbrel, tile, realine, thin-shell, earthquake, 15th, 18th.
Holzer, S. 2016 Canal locks and concrete, 1800-1860. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 133-156. The paper traces developments in the use of concrete in canal lock construction from the first trials by the French Amiable Hageau (1756-1836) for Napoleon’s Grand Canal du Nord between Antwerp and Dusseldorf, to Johann von Mihalik’s (1818-92) first monolithic concrete lock near Bezdan in present -day Serbia. Concrete, 19th century, canals, locks, hydraulic, Hageau, Mihalik, water.
Vandenabeele, L., Bertels, I., Wouters, I 2016 Baltic shipping marks on nineteenth century timber: their deciphering and a proposal for a innovative characterisation of old timber. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 157-176 Using contemporaneous treatises, journals, catalogues and construction manuals, the paper demonstrates that merchants marks on Baltic timber provide information about the dating, sources, qualities of and trade in timber used in historic buildings across Europe. Though concentrating on 19th century sources, the study is relevant to medieval and early Modern studies. Baltic, timber trade, shipping, export, timber grading, classification, 19th century, Northern Europe
Carocci, C.F., and Tocci, C. 2016 The timber truss dome of the Bellini Theatre, Catania: its history and construction. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 177-200. The paper demonstrates that many of the structural and decorative characteristics of the complex timber dome of the Teatro Massimo Bellini (1812-1890) in Catania (It) are the direct result of a prolonged and troubled design and construction history, and that neither the performance of the structure nor its conservation can be properly understood without a thorough understanding of that history. Italy, Catania, theatre, dome, timber, truss, Sada, Politeama, Massimo, camorcanna, 19th century
Ciccarelli, L. 2016 Philadelphia connections in Renzo Piano’s formative years: Robert le Ricolais and Louis I. Kahn. Construction History, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp 177-200 The paper explores the influence of the French Robert le Ricolais and the American Louis I. Kahn, and the collaboration of the latter, with the Italian Renzo Piano’s work on buildings such as the Olivetti-Harrisburg factory (1967-70), the Menil Collection (1982-87) and the Kimbrel Art Museum (2007-13) in America. USA, America, Piano, Kahn, Ricolais, Makowski, Olivetti, Harrisburg
van Tussenbroek, G. 2017 Building contracts in the Low Countries. Provisions concerning form and quality control in the construction industry (1350-1650). Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp 1020 Based on analysis of c. 250 building specifications and contracts dating to before 1650, the paper shows how the development of quality descriptions for brick, stone, wood and other materials changed over time. For carpentry and masonry, quality specifications date back to the end of the 15th century. Quality requirements for brick masonry date date from the 16th century, while for other materials they don’t occur until the end of the 16th century. Contracts also included provisions regarding force majeure and unforeseen circumstances. These provisions related to ambiguity in the wording of the contract, as well as to procedures in case of sickness or death of the contractor. Nonetheless, this did not prevent disputes, some of which lasted for decades. Netherlands, Belgium, Middle Ages, medieval, early Modern, specification, contract, organisation, planning, dispute, quality control
Threader, S. 2017 Thomas Telford - Engineer of Rochester Bridge 1821-1827. Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp 21-40 Drawing on primary archives held by the Rochester Bridge Trust, the paper provides insight into Telford’s personailty and the way he conducted his consultancy business, as well as the detail of his work for the Trust - such as advising on the provision of privies - none of which is published elsewhere. Britain, Kent, Medway, Rochester, Bridge, Telford, Rennie, 19th, engineering
Peters, T.J and Brown, S.F. 2017 George Robert Jebb (1838-1927): Railway and Canal Engineer. Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp 41-62 The paper discusses the professional, domestic and academic life of the canal and railway engineer G.R. Jebb. Initially trained and working as a railway engineer, Jebb later distinguished himself as Chief Engineer and Director of the Shropshire Union Railway and Canal Company and the Birmingham Canal Navigation, both of which had close links with the North Western Railway Company. He was involved with extensive innovative work at the Ellesmere Port docks and was a Commissioner of the Upper Mersey Navigation Commission. He contributed to the Royal Society of Arts, the British Science Association and the Royal Commission on Canals and Waterways; served on the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers as its Vice President 1912-1915; and was also a member of the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers and its President in 1912. He also acted as a consulting engineer and arbitrator, and was interested in mountaineering and flora. Britain, Jebb, biography, waterways, canals, railways, engineering, maintenance
Scibilia, F. 2017 Earthquake-resistant construction techniques in Italy between 1880 and 1910: alternatives to reinforced concrete. Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp 63-82 Based on historical-critical analysis of specialised literature, design competitions and patents, the paper examines how Italians, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed earthquake-resistant structures through re-assessment of traditional construction methods using brick, timber or metal, sometimes in combination with recently introduced materials such as expanded metal mesh. Italy, earthquake, patents, Messina, Regio Calabria, 19th, 20th
Cardellicchio, L. 2017 Building organic architecture in Italy: the history of the construction of the Solimene Ceramics Factory by Paolo Soleri in Vietri sul Mare (1952-56). Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp 83-104 The paper describes how Paolo Soleri (1919-2013) - a student of Frank Lloyd Wright - designed and managed the construction of an architecturally innovative industrial building using traditional craft skills and vernacular materials in post-war Italy. Italy, USA, Soleri, organic, terracotta, ceramics, factory, craft, 20th century
Zawisny, N., Fivet, C., and Ochsendorf, J. 2017 Guastovino’s design of the thin brick dome of the Cathedral of St John the Divine (1909). Construction History, Vol 32 No. 2, pp 39-66 The paper refutes received wisdom that Rafael Guastovino Jr’s calculation notes for the thinnest brick shell in the world are lost, by showing that his working drawings contain every calculation needed. A comparison of the drawings with contemporaneous literature demonstrates that his faster and more direct method of sizing a spherical masonry dome was highly innovative and original, and that his calculation method is still relevant for understanding old domes and designing new ones. thin-shell masonry dome, graphic statics, working-drawing, Guastovino Jr, Harlem, St John the Divine, 1909, 20th century, USA, America, New York.n
Ginovart, J.L., et al 2017 The design and layout of the arches in Pinell de Brai cooperative and the legacy of Catalan construction on Cesar Martinelli’s wine cellars (1918-27). Construction History, Vol 32 No. 2, pp 67-82 The article demonstrates how Cesar Martinelli i Brunet designed the catenary and parabolic arches of the Cooperative Pinelli de Brai wine cellar, and the influence of Antonio Gaudi i Corbet on the design method. Catenary, parabola, Martinelli, Gaudi, Hooke, Spain, 20th century, arch, masonry, wine
Kalisch, M.A.R. 2017 Construction technology development in Merida, Yucatan, MEXICO: From reinforced concrete structures to reinforced concrete shells (1903-64). Construction History, Vol 32 No. 2, pp 109-130 The paper presents a concise history of developments in reinforced concrete construction technology in Mexico between 1903 and 1964, from mixed structures to folded plate roofs and double curved shells, illustrated by extant buildings. Mexico, Merida, concrete, reinforced,folded-plate, hyperbolic parabaloid shells, 20th century
Blair,Alice; Glover,Sarah; Patel,Dinesh, and Pye,A 2020 Claridge’s Hotel: digging deep, creating a five-level basement below a fully operational five-star hotel in London’s Mayfair. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no.1 (1/2020), pp.16-23 The owners of Claridge’s, a five-star hotel in the heart of London’s exclusive Mayfair district, wanted to enhance the services offered to their guests and increase capacity. To do so, they needed to expand the hotel. Planning reasons meant they could not increase the height of the building, so an alternative solution was needed. Could a modern extension be created by excavating below the building – without disrupting the hotel services or disturbing the guests? The five-storey basement was constructed under the 1920s Art Deco section of the hotel: All the machinery and excavated materials passed through a single window to the rear of the hotel.
Deegan,J; Deeny,S; Edwards,P; Jaworski,A; et al. 2020 Macallan Distillery, Easter Elchies: a state-of-the-art distillery and visitor centre created to meet growing demand for Macallan Scotch whisky. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no.1, pp.44-51 (1/2020) The Macallan Distillery and Visitor Experience is located in the Easter Elchies estate in the Scottish Highlands, where it is set into the landscape so that it blends in with its surroundings. The building’s double-curved grass-covered roof is one of the largest timber grid-shell roofs in the world. Working in collaboration with architects Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners (RSHP) on the £140m project from concept through to completion, Arup carried out the structural, building services, fire, acoustic and civil engineering design, along with providing environmental and transportation advice for the new facility. The client wanted a contemporary distillery that would showcase the production of Macallan whisky and also be of the highest quality and craftsmanship, reflecting the company’s values. In addition, they wanted it to respect the surrounding countryside. It resulted in a 15,000m2 building that met this vision while also mitigating the fire risks inherent in the distilling process.
Anandityo, Dion, and Tan, Jason 2020 Guoco Tower, Singapore: the construction of these geometrically complex towers was achieved at great speed and with minimal disruption to the surrounding area. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no. I (1/2020), pp.38-43. Guoco Tower is a 156,000m² mixed-use development consisting of premium office, residential, hotel and retail space. Named after its occupant and owner, property developer GuocoLand, it sits at the heart of a neighbourhood that is swiftly being transformed into Singapore’s next business and lifestyle hub. Working in conjunction with US architectural practice Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arup was responsible for civil, structural and façade engineering, and sustainable building design. The development comprises two towers; the taller, at 290m, is the tallest building in Singapore. It is linked to the smaller 105m tower by a podium that offers 10m column-free, ceiling-to-floor views across the area. Guoco Tower consists of two towers that offer residential, hotel, office and retail space.
Balmer,Douglas; Balmer,Jo, and Carter,Matt 2020 Samuel De Champlain Bridge Corridor Project, Montreal, Canada: an essential piece of infrastructure delivered two and a half years earlier than originally planned and within the project budget. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no.1 (1/2020), pp.30-37. In June 2019, Montreal celebrated the opening of the 3.4km Samuel De Champlain Bridge, one of the largest and busiest bridges in North America. Crossing the Saint Lawrence River and its international shipping channel, it is a vital thoroughfare for both goods and people, accommodating in excess of 50 million crossings and facilitating CAD$20 billion (around £12 billion) of trade every year. Built through a public-private partnership (PPP) between the Government of Canada (via Infrastructure Canada) and the Signature on the Saint Lawrence Group, it is a landmark structure forming a gateway to the city of Montreal. The construction of the bridge was part of the CAD$4.24 billion New Bridge for the Saint Lawrence Corridor Project, a major urban highway improvement project in the Montreal metropolitan area and one of the largest infrastructure schemes in North America. The project also encompassed the construction of the 500m Île des Sœurs Bridge and the renewal of 8.5km of highway; there is a dedicated public transport corridor incorporated, as well as an enhanced network of pedestrian and cycling paths throughout the corridor.
Feteanu,R; Li,M; Su,F; Wong,K and Yu,V 2020 Beijing Daxing International Airport, China; the largest airport in the world. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no.1 (1/2020), pp.24-29. The spectacular starfish-shaped Beijing Daxing International Airport is one of the biggest single-structure terminals in the world, measuring 1.2km from end to end. Covering more than 700,000m2, it is the largest airport (in terms of size) globally. It opened in September 2019 and currently handles 300 take-offs and landings an hour and 42 million passengers per year. This will eventually grow to 100 million passengers annually. Working closely with Beijing Institute of Architectural Design, Arup designed a number of innovative solutions for this project. The firm provided fire engineering, passenger and logistics simulations and structural peer review services. This work has resulted in significant material and cost savings, and carbon emission reduction. Successfully integrating the ground transportation centre with the terminal building, for instance, has helped to save at least 1.6 million hours for nearly 30 million passengers every year.
Evans,T; Falbe-Hansen,K; Martini,N; Juul-Sorensen, 2020 Cityringen metro line, Copenhagen, Denmark. The Arup Journal, Vol.55, no.1 (1/ 2020), pp. 4-15. The Cityringen line, which opened in September 2019, aims to encourage more citizens to use this environmentally friendly form of transport. Cityringen adds a third line to Copenhagen’s extremely popular existing metro system. The Cityringen metro line, consisting of 16km of twin-bore tunnels and 17 new underground stations, provides a 24-minute loop around Copenhagen’s city centre, interchanging with the existing metro, mainline services and buses. Cityringen runs 24/7 and seeks to encourage residents out of their cars and onto an environmentally friendly form of transit. It is a key part of the city’s plan to become carbon neutral by 2025. Cityringen opened in September 2019; 85% of Copenhagen residents are now less than a 10-minute walk from a train station. In 2007, Metroselskabet, Copenhagen’s metro company, appointed Arup with joint venture (JV) partners COWI and SYSTRA to act as multidisciplinary technical adviser for this design and build contract. It was the city’s largest construction project in more than 400 years. Working on the design and procurement strategy for the contract, the JV provided engineering, architectural and advisory services, including civil and structural design, risk assessment, cost estimates, and project and programme management. Arup was also responsible for the reference design safety case on the project.
Paxton, Roland 2020 Spanning the centuries: an anthology of essays reflecting the influence and heritage of the Union Bridge, Berwick-upon-Tweed, to celebrate its Bicentenary Bridges / Heritage Structures
Peters, T.F. 2018 The El-Kantara Bridge in Algeria: An early development of cantilevering construction and what we can learn from its documentation in text and image (1862-3). Construction History Vol. 33 No. 1 pp 69-82. The article examines the design and construction of the earliest fully-documented cantilevered bridge - at Constantine in Algeria - and the manner in which that process was recorded by its engineer, Georges Martin. The photographic record he produced is the second known, and the first by a construction professional. Algeria, bridge, cantilever, iron, Martin, Baldus, 19th, photography
Shu, C. 2018 Towards Western construction in China: Shanghai brickwork and printed technical resources (1843-1936). Construction History Vol. 33 No. 1, pp 83-110. The paper illustrates the importance of literature - as opposed to oral instruction - in the introduction of western construction, and particularly brickwork, to China in the late 19th and early 290th centuries, and the adaptation of it by Chinese builders. China, Brickwork, literature,knowledge transfer, Mitchell, Zhang Ying-Xu, Ge Shang-Xuan, Du Yan-Geng, 19th, 20th
Clarke, L. 1992 Building Capitalism: Historical Change and the Labour process in the Production of the Built Environment. A detailed and forensic analysis, using primary archive sources, of how the agricultural margins of the City of London were urbanised during the 18th and 19th centuries. Examining the roles of aristocratic and institutional landowners, agents and developers, artisans and - later - trade/building contractors, it demonstrates that the slum conditions created in the former Somerstown area of St Pancras (largely demolished in the 1930s) were the consequence of specific, but un-planned, commercial relationships and strategies; and that the trade and commercial practices and legal structures operative in the mid 18th century were unsuited to the task of large-scale capitalist property development. Possibly the first published English language work to examine the mechanics and economics of pre-industrialised brick production in the urban context, as well a the crucial role of infrastructure, particularly paviours, and the pyramidal leasehold system that was employed throughout London and most British towns and cities during the late 17th to the late 19th century. Britain, London, 18th, 19th, urbanisation, development, economics, leasehold, contract, trade, artisan, materials, landowner, agent, slum, infrastructure, drains, paving
Figueres, M.P., Mananos, A.P., & Garcia, V.B. 2018 The development of pre-fabricated envelopes by GO.DB Architects Studio. Construction History Vol. 33 No. 2 pp 109-128 The article analyses the introduction of pre-fabricated modular components in large-scale housing projects in Spain in the 1960s, examining where the ideas came from, the materials used and the construction methods employed. Spain, 20th, pre-fabricated, prefabricated, high-rise, concrete, plastics
Zheng, H., Pan, Y., & Campbell, J.W.P. 2019 Building on Shanghai soil: A historical survey of foundation engineering in Shanghai, 1843-1941. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 1-20 The paper explains how high-rise Western buildings were constructed on the alluvial mud substrate of Shanghai village during the late 19th and early 20th century, using Western foundation technology adapted to local conditions by Western and Chinese builders. China, Shanghai, 19th, 20th, foundations, piling, piles, concrete, timber, raft, economics
Reeder, L. 2019 Case studies in resource efficiency: design and construction in the Grand Canyon, 1921-28. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 21-42 The paper uses the engineers’ and owners’ archives to examine the resource-efficient strategies enforced upon the designers and builders of two suspension bridges and a tourist resort in the base of the Grand Canyon between 1921 and 1928, without powered transport. USA, 20th, Grand canyon, suspension bridge, tourism, draught animals, resource efficiency, National Park Service, Mary E.J. Colter, Kaibab Suspension Bridge, Phantom Ranch, Fred Harvey
O’Brien, M.J. 2019 Federalized prefabrication: Southeast Missouri Farms Self-Help Housing in the 1930s. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 43-58 The paper explains how the US government, under the second New Deal, developed industrially-produced prefabricated buildings for self-assembly by economically distressed farmers in the bootheel counties of southeast Missouri during the 1930s, achieving completion rates c. 30 times faster than for standard construction. The paper also examines the political context of the programme and its discontinuation. USA, Missouri, 20th, FSA, Resettlement Administration, unskilled labour, self-help, owner-built, pre-fabrication, prefabrication, farms, politics, economics, depression
Li, H. 2019 Environmental adaptability of Building Mode: A typological study on the technological modification of Hoffman Kiln in China since the 1950s. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 59-84 The paper demonstrates how the Hoffman Kiln, introduced to China at the end of the 19th century, was adapted by Chinese designers and brick-makers to suit local environmental, material and economic conditions. China, 20th, brick, kiln, Hoffman, environment, modification, prototype
Diaz, J.G. & Garcia, D.E. 2019 Design and construction of structures for stadiums in Colombia: the contributions of the engineer Guillermo Gonzalez Zuleta (1947-89). Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 85-102. The paper examines the introduction and adaptation of thin-shell canopies with minimum structural supports for use as sports stadia in Colombia during the second half of the 20th century, with particular reference to their experimental and innovative designs. Colombia, 20th , thin-shell, concrete, sports stadium, civic.
Stracchi, P. 2019 Pier Luigi Nervi and Harry Seidler’s Australia Square Tower: Italian structure, Australian design. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 1 pp 103-128. The paper demonstrates the fundamental role played by Nervi in the design of the ground-breaking cylindrical Australia Square Tower in Sydney (1962-7) with an exposed load-bearing concrete structure. Australia, Sydney, 20th, high-rise, skyscraper, Nervi, Seidler, precast concrete, reinforced concrete, ferro-cement, exoskeletal.
Liu, Y. 2019 Building woven arch bridges in southeast China: carpenters’ secrets and skills. Construction History Vol 34 No. 2, pp 17-35 The woven arch bridge in Southeast China is a particular type of traditional wooden structure. Composed of interlocking beams, the arch-shaped structure can reach a span of over 40 m. This bridge building tradition developed in a less-developed mountain area, isolated from and unknown to the outside world for centuries. Bridge carpenters whose expertise is the product of more than two centuries of family traditions are actively using this technique today. They work with primitive and simple design and construction tools. Bridges over high cliffs and deep waters are built using the simplest scaffolding system, and the sophisticated composition is designed and calculated using a sketch with only a few lines. The techniques for designing and constructing the bridges are family secrets and are handed down through generations. Of all the knowledge and skills, the wooden joint is a key for understanding the world of bridge carpenters’ techniques. The use of a systematic set of wooden joints enabled carpenters to assemble the structure on a dangerous building site with limited facilities. The selection of joint forms and the design method reflect the fundamental technical features of the bridge construction, and differences among carpenter-groups are indicators of family pedigree. China, woven arch bridge, reciprocal frame structure, timber, scaffolding, joint, carpentry
Loeffler, B. 2019 Thwarted innovation: The Western discourse on earthquake resistance in Japanese architecture- an historical view. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 2 pp 35-52. The construction principles of traditional Japanese architecture are of considerable interest today. They appear to have a long history of academic scholarship in the West and one might assume that knowledge about them has reached an advanced state. This assumption is incorrect, however. Today’s knowledge about Japanese construction principles is still comparatively limited outside Japan, since the topic was largely ignored by European civil engineers and architects during the late nineteenth century, when modern academic research on Japanese architecture began. The paper uses the discourse regarding the earthquake resistance of Japanese buildings as a means to gain insight into the formation of modern Western building sciences and their intentional dissociation from craft tradition. It traces actors and their patterns of argument through popular and specialized journals and shows the discourse to be a complex negotiation of cultural expectations, claims about the hegemony of Western civilisation, specialists’ rivalries, and contemporary topics in European politics. The paper argues that this linking of building practices and building knowledge with paradigms of culture and civilisation had a lasting effect on the academic perception of Japanese architecture in general and wooden building construction in particular, and indeed impeded further research. Japan, earthquake, pagoda, Josiah Conder, Christopher Dresser, 19th, scholarship, history of science.
Martinez, M.M. 2019 Origin of equilibrium methods applied to the structural calculation of long cylindrical shells. Construction History Vol. 34 No.2 pp 53-74 Assessing the state of stress of a cylindrical shell, according to elastic theory, originally consisted of formulating hypotheses about the conditions surrounding it, which were impossible to determine beforehand, and the type of structural material used, which had to be ideal, uniform and isotropic. However, even when it was possible to solve complex second-degree equations, there was no guarantee that this state of stress represented the ‘real’ state of the shell. Plastic theory emerged as a consequence of the shortcomings of elastic theory. It was also the twentieth century’s most important contribution to structural theory. This study looks at a specific episode, which has barely been studied and is part of the history of plastic or breaking load calculations, and concerns the origin and subsequent application of the plastic method as an ideal tool for the structural calculation of long cylindrical shells. It meant that they could be calculated easily and accurately, as will be discussed below. Limit analysis, K.W. Johansen, equilibrium, cylindrical shell, calculation, beam method, shell structures
Marfella, G. 2019 The zipper gasket: a flexible link between cars and curtain walls. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 2 pp 75-98. The zipper gasket was an innovative glazing method introduced after World War II to overcome problems of safety and installation in curtain walls. Invented at first for automotive windshields in the United States, the technique used neoprene compression gaskets to secure glass in window frames without wet sealants. The first application of zipper gaskets in a building dates from the mid-1950s in the curtain walls of the General Motors Technical Center, near Detroit. The glazing method was subsequently used in several prominent American high-rise commercial towers, most notably in the headquarters of glass manufacturer Libbey-Owens-Ford, in Toledo, Ohio. Zipper gaskets found discrete international success also outside the United States in Australian and British buildings of the 1960s. The technique was a transient but significant step forward on the development of curtain walls. The zipper gasket represents a case of successful technology transfer between the automotive and construction industries. The origin, technical characteristics, and construction implications of the technique highlight the successful alliance between architects, builders and glass manufacturers and their shared stake for innovation in sealing and glazing methods of modern curtain walls. USA, Australia, 20th, curtain walls, glazing, neoprene, gaskets, tall buildings, Libby-Owens-Ford (LOF), Pittsburgh Plate Glass (PPG).
Pedreschi, R. 2019 The church of San Pedro Durazno (between the rational and the mystical). Construction History Vol. 34 No. 2 pp 99-130. The church of San Pedro located in, Durazno, Uruguay, suffered severe damage following a major fire in 1967. The engineer Eladio Dieste, became responsible for its subsequent re-construction. The project presented significant challenges, working with the existing fabric to a very limited budget. Despite this Dieste proposed and completed a remarkable transformation, to produce a contemporary, modern design. The work is almost entirely of reinforced brick, adapting and developing new techniques of masonry construction he had pioneered in numerous projects. The paper presents a short history of the church, background to the fire and describes the reconstruction; the design concept, structure and construction. To assist in understanding Dieste’s approach reference is made to some of his key writings, new contributions from his collaborators on the project and previously unpublished images from various archives. Key elements of the structure and construction are described in detail, such as the novel pre-stressing systems used in both the roof and walls of the nave and the remarkable rosette window of minimal brick structure. The discussion is supported by further structural analysis and prototype construction studies at the University of Edinburgh. The church occupies a particular place in the work of Dieste, as an outstanding exemplar of his search for ‘cosmic economy’, in which architecture, structure and construction are integrated seamlessly. Uruguay, 20th , church, Dieste, brick, pre-stressed, fire
Villate-Matiz, C., et al 2019 Construction innovations in a suspension structure: The Domenico Parma bridge. Construction History Vol. 34 No. 2 pp 131-148. This article describes and analyses the construction process of a suspension bridge built on the Chinchiná River (Colombia) in 1986, which is characterised by having only one tower, shaped like a tuning fork, located at the midpoint of span. The designer, an Italian engineer resident in Colombia, Domenico Parma, was also at the forefront of the construction process, in which he introduced innovations that were learned and replicated by other Colombian engineers. Special attention is paid to the construction equipment that Parma himself designed and assembled during the construction of the bridge. Colombia, 20th, Domenico Parma, bridge, suspension, equipment.
Summerson, J. 1985 What is the history of construction? Construction History Vol. 1 pp 1-2.
Tough, A. 1985 Sources for construction history in the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick. Construction History Vol 1 pp 3-5. A summary of the business records of the main trade and employers’ organisations of the British construction industry from the 19th to the late 20th century, held by the Modern Records centre at the University of Warwick. Also holds business records of some building firs, such a Parnell of Rugby, who worked for the LNWR, Butterfield and Lutyens. CBI, FBI, BEC, NFBTE, EETPU, ISTC, TGWU, UCATT, PTU, SPU, OSM
Trowell, F. 1985 Speculative housing development in Leeds and the involvement of local architects in the design process 1866-1914. Construction History Vol. 1 pp 6-12 Based on thesis examining the process in which agricultural land was urbanised in the 2nd half of the 19th century in Britain, using the Leeds suburb of Headingley as a case study, and the extent to which the emerging profession of architect and early local government were involved. A good study of the industry at that time. cf, Clarke, 1993. Britain, 19th, housing, speculative, pattern books, approval, bye-laws, designer, architect, government, control.
Powell, C.G. 1985 Case studies and lost tribes: the Bristol firm of James Diment and Stephens, Bastow& Co. Construction History Vol. 1 pp 13-24. Detailed analysis of the business life of a small building firm in Bristol (Britain) during the 19th century, examining reasons for success and failure. Catalogues the scale and nature of contracts undertaken, their economic value and geographic spread. Lists a large number of other firms operating in the area at that time. Britain, 19thC, Bristol, firm, failure, success, workload
Donnelly, T. 1985 Structure, technology and demand in the Aberdeen granite quarrying industry 1880-1914. Construction History Vol 1 pp25-25.
Cooney, E.W. 1985 Innovation in the postwar British building industry: a historical view. Construction History Vol. 1 pp36-51. Examines the lack of innovation evident in the British construction industry by the mid 20th C and the steps taken to redress that. Britain, 20th, innovation, costs, investment, pre-fabrication, prefabrication, housing, high-rise
Finnimore, B. 1985 The A.I.R.O.H. house: industrial diversification and state building policy. Construction History Vol. 1 pp52-.
Coates, C. 1986 Sources for construction history in the library of the Trades Union Congress. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 1-2 Britain, 19th, 20th, TUC, Burns, housing, Ritzema, Tuckwell, labour, union
Calabi, D. 1986 Construction history and urban sites:recent work by the Venetian school on the construction history of Venice during the Long Renaissance. Construction History Vol. 2 pp3-12. A study of the processes, people and organisations that created Venice Italy, 16th, Tafuri, Foscari, Spavento, Bon, Lombardo, Samnsovino, Giacondo, Guberni, Vignola, arsenal, naval, ship-building, Fausto
Yeomans, D.T. 1986 Early carpenters’ manuals 1592-1820. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 13-33. The definitive study of the influence of literature on the development of structural carpentry in Britain during the 16th to 19th centuries. Primat, Neve, Gerbier, Digges, measurement, calculation, Leybourne, Stirrup, Hoppus, Moxon, Halfpenny, geometry, Price, langley, pain, trusses
Houldsworth, H.K. 1986 Changing practices in labour relations: the Society of Master Carpenters, London 1783-99. Construction Hstory Vol. 2 pp 34-47. A study of the painful transition from artisan to wage-based labour in London during the 18th century. strike, wages, artisan, combination, capitalism, London, Britain
Roger, R. 1986 Structural instability in the Scottish building industry 1820-80. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 48-60.
Powell, C.G. 1986 He that runs against time: life expectancy of building firms in nineteenth century Bristol. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 61-67. Detailed analysis of the construction industry of Bristol during the 19th century, examining the number and size of firms, their life expectancy and the reasons for their success and failure. Applicable to all larger British towns. Britain, 19thC, Bristol, provincial
Russell, I. 1986 Researching a company history: the McAlpine project. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 68-75. History of the McAlpine construction dynasty, examining its business life and the challenges facing historians of such organisations. Traces company from origins in Lanarkshire, Scotland in c. 1868, through bankruptcies and other crises, examining the important role of public works, railways, government and war in the expansion of the company. Britain, Scotland, 19th, contractor, civil.
Davison, K. 1986 Sources for the construction history of the Second World War. Construction History Vol. 2 pp 76-80.
Dunkeld, M. 1987 Approaches to Construction History. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 3-16.
Morley, J. 1987 Building Themes in Construction History: recent work by the Delaware Valley Group. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 17-30. Historiographical review article USA
Louw, H. 1987 The Rise of the Metal Window during the Early Industrial Period in Britain, c.1750-1830. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 31-54.
Charlton, T.M. 1987 Innovation in Structural Theory in the Nineteenth Century. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 55-60.
Cusack, P. 1987 Agents of Change: Hennebique, Mouchel and ferro-concrete in Britain, 1897-1908. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 61-74. Examines the introduction of reinforced concrete to Britain in the late 19th C, identifying the principle people, systems, agents, contractors and buildings.
Abram, J. 1987 An Unusual Organisation of Production: the building firm of the Perret Brothers, 1897-1954. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 75-94. A history of the Perret Brothers company, from Burgundian builders to architects and main contractors specialising in civic buildings. identifies the principal people, systems and buildings. A good evocation of the construction industry in late 19th and early 20th C France.
Hellgardt, M. 1987 Martin Wagner: the work of building in the era of its technical reproduction. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 95-114. An examination of the professional life and influence of the German architect (1885-1957) on the design, economics and construction management of buildings, with particular attention to pre-fabricated and modular buildings, including large residential Grosssiedlung buildings, and the importance of site layout to efficient construction. Germany, 19th C , modular, management
Cooney, E.W. 1987 Innovation and Contracts in the Postwar British Building Industry. Construction History Vol. 3 pp 115-124. The second of two articles on this theme, examining the influence of different types of pro-forma contracts on the construction design and management. Britain, JCT,. RIBA, contracts
Yeomans, D.T. 1988 Managing Eighteenth-Century Building. Construction History Vol. 4, pp 3-20. Examines the changes imposed on the British construction industry by the demands of the Great Fire rebuilding of London, the expansion of London and govt-funded projects such as the Queen Anne churches; and the emergence of the architect as a profession in Britain. Britain, Enlnand, London, 17th, 18th cnetury, Wren, Vanbrugh, Hawksmoor, contracts, trades, supervision, surveyor, architect, quality control
Picon, A. 1988 Navier and the Introduction of Suspension Bridges in France. Construction History Vol. 4 pp 21-34 Examines the changes imposed on the French construction industry by the introduction, from America via Britain, of the suspension bridge in 1820-30. Cites the principle institutions, people and structures and the instructive failures. France, USA, Britain, 19th, Basse-Chaine, Roche-Bernard, Seguin, Tournon, Invalides, failure, Cubzac, Vicat, Dutens, Gauthey, Pope.
Stratton, M. 1988 Science and Art Closely Combined: the organisation of training in the terracotta industry, 1850-1939. Construction History Vol. 4 pp 35-52. Examines the changes imposed on the British construction industry by the adoption of moulded terracotta as a decorative cladding material in the mid 19th century. Cites people, institutions and the principal buildings. Britain, 19th, faience, terracotta, Hathernware, Coade, ceramics, Blashfield, Blanchard, caryatids, training, education, mass-production, artistry
Bonshek, J. 1988 The Skyscraper: a catalyst of change in the Chicago construction industries, 1882-1892. Construction History Vol. 4 pp 53-74. Examines the challenges imposed on the American construction industry by the demand for tall building, initially in Chicago; the emergence of specialist contractors and materials suppliers and the de-skilling that accompanied the systematised construction under challenging timetables and budgets. Presents a short history of the skyscraper, then cites the principle people, organisations and buildings. USA, America, 19th, 20th, unions, elevator, Otis, fire-proof, manhattan, chicago, auditorium, division
Erhlich, M., & Goldberg, D.J. 1988 Work not Relief: Massachusetts carpenters, craft unionism and the Great Depression. Construction History Vol. 4 pp 75- Examines the effects of the Great Depression on craft and union organisations in the world’s largest and most rapacious capitalist economy and the role of government in normalising the working lives of craftsmen such as carpenters. USA, 20th, unions, trades, New Deal, Roosevelt, government schemes, work-creation
Louw, H. 1989 Demarcation Disputes between the English Carpenters and Joiners from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Construction History Vol. 5 pp 3-20. Analysis of the causes and consequences of the separation of carpenters from joiners in late 16th C Britain, how the division was first manifest in civic processions, the influence of Renaissance artistic imperatives and the difference between London and the rest of the country. Britain, England, London, 16th, carpenter, joiner, craft, demarcation, organisation, dispute.
Gasparini, D.A., & Provost, C. 1989 Early Nineteenth Century Developments in Truss Design in Britain, France and the United States. Construction History Vol. 5 pp 21-34. The influence of the railways on truss development in Britain, America and France. A short summary of the history of the truss as a mechanism, followed by the specific imperatives of railway and engineering requirements. The principle people, publications, structures such as the Gaunless Viaduct and truss forms such as: the Lattice truss, tube girders, Warren’s girder, bowstring bridge. Galileo, Stevin, Newton, Varignon, Bernoulli, Lagrange, Navier, Polonceau, Stephenson, Long, Whipple
Brooke, D. 1989 The Railway Navvy-a reassessment. Construction History Vol. 4 pp 35-46. Analysis of the working lives and importance of the manual excavator to the development of railways in Britain and Europe before the advent of mechanical excavators; their emergence from agricultural and canal contracting and their eventual decline in the early 20th C. Also examines the efforts of philanthropists to limit the worst excesses of the ’lump’ and ’truck’ systems. Essentially a summary of Coleman’s 1965 book ’The Railway Navvies’ . Britain, Europe, railways, 19th, contractor, sub-contractor, welfare, fatalities, tunnel, excavation, docks, cuttings, labour.
Spencer-Silver, P. 1989 George Myers, 1803-75, Stonemason, Builder, Contractor. Construction History Vol. 5, pp 47-58. A rare example of a detailed history of a British building contractor in the 19th C, charting his entry into the trade and eventual success as a contractor for Pugin and others; presenting a comprehensive picture of the social and economic circumstances and the importance of public/government works to the success of contractors. Britain, England, 19th, contractor, firm, sub-contractor, asylum, workhouse
Chrimes, M.M. 1989 The Institution of Civil Engineers’ Library and Archives: a brief introduction. Construction History Vol. 5 pp 59-66. A guide to the historical sources curated by the ICE in London, comprising: books and serials, tracts and treatises, government publications, biographical information, archives and drawings. The sources cover civil engineering projects undertaken around the world
Guillery, P. 1990 Building the Millwall Docks. Construction History Vol. 6 pp 3-22. An analysis of the challenges facing promotion, financing and construction of Millwall Docks in London, c. 1860-1868. An object lesson in how not to do it, involving an over-ambitious project, inexperienced developers and contractors, fraud and macro-economic failures. Provides an important counterpoint to the otherwise celebratory history of Victorian enterprise. Britain, London, 19th, docks, speculation, financing, crash, fraud, development, corruption
Lawrence, J.C. 1990 Steel Frame Architecture versus the London Building Regulations: Selfridges, the Ritz and American Technology. Construction History Vol. 6 pp 23-46. Explains the challenges to the British commercial and construction industries and the regulatory frameworks under which they operated, caused by the introduction of large, open-plan department stores and hotels from the US in the early 210th century. Principle people, organisations, buildings and legislative instruments. Britain, America, 20th, Selfridge, Selfridge’s, Ritz, concrete, steel, regulation, fire
Korvenmaa, P. 1990 The Finnish Wooden House Transformed: American prefabrication, war-time housing and Alvar Aalto. Construction History Vol. 6 pp 47-62. Describes the industrialisation of pre-fabricated timber buildings in Finland during the early 20th C and the involvement of America in that process. Presents a short history of timber construction in both countries and then focuses on research and exchanges during 1935-45 and their legacy. Names the principal people, organisations, events and projects. Finland, America, 20th, prefabrication, timber, housing, Aalto, bemis
Kenney, A. 1990 Sources for the History of Housing in English Provincial Towns in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Construction History Vol. 6 pp 63- Methodological paper summarising the sources available and where they can be examined. Britain, England, 18th 19th, housing
Schofield, J. 1991 The Construction of Medieval and Tudor Houses in London. Construction History Vol. 7 pp 3-28. Britain, England, London
Cooney, E.W. 1991 Eighteenth Century Britain’s Missing Sawmills: A Blessing in Disguise?. Construction History Vol. 7 pp 29-46. Britain, timber, materials
Louw, H. 1991 Window-Glass Making in Britain c.1660-c.1860 and its Architectural Impact. Construction History Vol. 7 pp 47-68.
Darnell, V.C. 1991 The Pioneering Iron Trusses of Nathaniel Rider. Construction History Vol. 7 pp 69-82.
Loader, R., & Skinner, J. 1991 Management, Construction and Architecture: The Development of the Model Factory. Construction History Vol. 7 pp 83-105.
Carvais, R., & Negre, V. 2006 The Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers and the preservation, dissemination and innovation of construction know-how (1794-1971). Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 7-34. Keynote lecture at the 2006 Cambridge conference that summarises the history of the CNAM as a medium of knowledge curation and transfer and a font of innovation. France, 18th, 19th, Abbe Gregoire, teaching, knowledge transfer, Dupin, Gourniere, Rouche, Trelat, Mesnager, Ache, Poupee, Prouve, Liet-Veaux, Morin, Ragey
Clarke, L. & Wall, C. 2006 Omitted from history: Women in the building trades. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 35-60. Keynote lecture that demonstrates that, despite the dominance of the construction industry by men, there have been episodes when women made significant contributions to the industry. It explains why and how women were included or excluded from the industry and from historical accounts of it. women, wage labour, capitalism, wartime expediency
Giron, J. 2006 Drawing and construction analysis: from Piranesi to Choisy. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 61-88. Keynote lecture to the 2006 congress demonstrating the historical importance of drawing and drawings as an analytical tool. Viollet-le-Duc, Choisy, Piranesi, Spini, geometry, Cuvier, graphic, Vitruvius, Belidor, Perronet, Gaudet,
Ochsendorf, J. 2006 Engineering analysis for Construction History: opportunities and perils. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 89- 110. Keynote lecture at the 2006 Congress demonstrating the special insights that engineering analysis brings to history, often identifying themes not hitherto recognised by social, economic or architectural histories. Using flying buttresses, Inca suspension bridges and Guastavino’s thin shell vaults as case-studies.
Abbate, F. 2006 The planning and building instruments of architects in the late Middle Ages. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 111-126. Using inferences from documentary and graphic sources, the few architectural treatises that refer to drawing instruments, and examination of the buildings, the author demonstrates the range of measuring and drawing implements available to the medieval designer and builder and how they were used. Villard de Honnecourt, Hugues Libergier, compass, Stevin Hipomnemata Mathematica, catenary, Gauzon, Druid’s Rope, Plumb rule, anthropometric unit
Addis, B. 2006 The use of scientific calculations in design procedures for heating, ventilating, day-lighting and acoustics from the eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 127-152. The paper explains how methods of scientific calculation were developed from the 16th century; and then how these were applied to the design of building services and environments. calculation, arithmetic, logarithms, slide rule, graphical calculation, nomography, Facit, BRE
Alonso, P. I. 2006 Diagrams of a universal system of construction in the work of Konrad Wachsmann: between representation and technology. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 153-166. Germany, 20th , pre-fabrication, prefabrication, modular
Amici, C.M. 2006 The basilica of Maxentius in Rome: innovative solutions in the organisation of construction process. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 167-178. Rome, roman, 4th, concrete, formwork, scaffolding, setting-out, control
Antuna, J. 2006 The evolution of the work of Eduardo Torroja: shell roofs with and without reinforcement rings. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 179-194. Freyssinet, Istres, Bagneaux, Bauersfel and Dischinger, Jena, Flugge, geodesic, thin shell
Arce, I. 2006 Umayyad arches, vaults and domes: merging and re-creation. Contributions to Early Islamic Construction History. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 195-220. The paper demonstrates how the Umayyads merged Late Roman and Partho-Sassanian construction techniques, a process initiated by the disappearance of the Levant border under Alexander the Great, to create a new ’aulic’ imagery and architectural framework for their new empire. This is exemplified by their structural roofing systems, which represent one of the most remarkable stages of technical development in the key transitional period from Late Antiquity to Early Medieval. Levant, Arab, Muslim, Islam, Syria, Egypt, diaphragm arch, vault, ribbed, horsehoe, centerings, Persia, Mesopotamia, squinch, Byzantium, dome, pendentive,
Arciniega, L. et al 2006 The representation of architecture in construction during the Hispanic Early-Modern period. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 221-238. The paper explores the manner in which construction as an activity is represented in Spanish graphic art of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Spain, 16th, 17th, 18th, Esturmio, El Escorial, Montufar, Avila, Tibaldi, Alegre, art, graphic, painting, sculpture
Arellano, J.F. 2006 Earthen industrial buildings in the Canal of Castilla: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 239-250. The paper explains how and why upcast materials from canal construction were used to produce industrial and wharfage buildings along the Spanish Canal of Castilla in the 18th and 19th centuries. Spain, 18th 19th, canal, adobe, earthen,warehouse, mill
Bachmann, M. 2006 Divine staging. The civil engineering peculiarities of the Hittite Spring Sanctuary Eflatun Pinar. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 251-266. The paper describes the recently-discovered religious sanctuary of Eflatun Pinar near Konya in Turkey, and postulates how it was constructed. Turkey, cyclopean
Bardati, F. 2006 A building site in early sixteenth century Normandy: the Castle of Gaillon, organisation, workers, materials and technologies. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, Vol 1 pp 289-308. Detailed contemporaneous accounts allow an analysis of how the castle was built, the people involved, the sources of materials and the techniques employed. France, Renaissance, 15th, 16th, archives, d’Amboise
Barthel, R., Maus, H., Jagfeld, M. 2006 Artistry and Ingenuity of Gothic Vaults at the Example of St Georg in Nordlingen. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 309-324 An historical and statical analysis of the gallery vaults of the parish church of St Georg at Noerdlingen in Germany, built 1427-1519, and the reasons for their failure and historical repair.. Germany, vaults, statics, 15th, 16th, Weyer
Beckh, M. 2006 Traditional construction techniques of the Newars at the Itum Baha monastery in Kathmandu. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 325-340 Describes the vernacular buildings and construction methods of this area of Nepal, with specific reference to the various types of Buddhist monasteries.
Larena, J. B. 2006 The iron-wood composite section of the Carrousel Bridge in Paris (1834). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 341-356. An historical and engineering analysis of Polonceau’s innovative combination of iron and timber in the tubular beams of the Carrousel Bridge, in which the sectional iron tubes are filled with timber sealed with bitumen. The article identifies subsequent bridges influenced by Polonceau and the physical properties and performance of the metal and timber components. France, Paris, bridge, 19th, Polonceau.
Bernabeu, A. 2006 Origin of the collaboration between engineers and architects in Great Britain in the Thirties. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 357-378. An examination of the development of collaborative working in Britain during the early 20th century, focussing on the engineers and the structures they created. Mendelsohn, Arup, Samuely, Williams
Bertels, I. 2006 The contractors’ intellectual profile: knowledge and training in nineteenth century public works contractors in nineteenth century Antwerp, Belgium. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1, pp 379-392. An analysis of the importance of education and training in the improvement of contractors’ lives and building design in 19th C Belgium. Nijverheidsschool, Industrial School, Belgium, 19th
Sabatini, P.B. 2006 Antoine Chrysostome Quatremere de Quincy (1755-1849) and the rediscovery of polychrome in Grecian architecture: colour techniques and archaeological research in the pages of Olympian Zeus. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 393-408 The birth of modern archaeology in Sicily in the 18th century.
Bodolec, C. 2006 Uncommon public buildings with vault and abutments in the Chinese landscape of wooden construction (sixteenth - eighteenth centuries). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 409-416. An explanation of the rare 16th, 17th and 18th century masonry ’wuliang diam’ - or ’beamless hall’ - buildings of China. China, Miaofeng,
Brucculeri, A. 2006 Renewal and tradition in the teaching of building construction at the Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris: the course of Edouard Arnaud, 1920-1934. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 417-440. An analysis of the manner in which architecture and construction were taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts during the early 20th C; the principle persons, techniques and example buildings . France, 20th, Monduit, Arnaud,
Buonopane, S. 2006 The Roeblings and the Stayed Suspension Bridge: its development and propagation in nineteenth century United States. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 441-461. A study of the involvement of two generations of the German Roebling family in the development of suspension bridge design and construction in 19th C America. Presents the engineering background, especially the involvement of Navier (Fr) and Telford (GB); Roeblings’ design methods; analysis of load distribution between cables and stays, the role of the ’stiffening truss’ and their selection criteria for cable and stay sizes. Examines their design of the Lowelville Bridge using archive sources and assesses their influence in the work of others, spec. Thomas Griffiths and James W. Shipman. USA, 19th, suspension bridge, cable. Brooklyn Bridge
Bustamante, R. 2006 Similarities and differences in barrel vaults of traditional stately houses in the historic centre of Arequipa, Peru. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 461-472. Analysis and description of the distinctive 16th, 17th and 18th century aristocratic houses of central Arequipa that are based on the barrel vault as the standard roof and floor structure, most of which were destroyed in an earthquake of 1868. Presents a geometrical analysis of the vaults, a spatial analysis of the floor plans, buttress configurations, decorative treatments and natural lighting. Peru, 16th 17th 18th, traditional, vault
Calderini, C., et al. 2006 Structural framework evolution from the seventeenth to the twentieth century in the Genoan Replublic’s shipyard. Architectural archaeology investigates the layers of the structure. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 473-492. An archaeological, historical and finite element analysis of the 17th - early 20th century shipyard and arsenal at Genoa, revealing the structural and technological evolution of this substantial structure and the people involved. Italy, Genoa, arcate nuove, D’Oria, Assereto, Giustiniani, Senarega
Lopez, J.C. 2006 Sixteenth century Spanish cranes and Lazaro de Velasco’s translation of Vitruvius. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 493-508. An analysis of the professional life of Lazaro de Velasco (b. 1520-1526) and his speculative reconstruction of cranes and lifting devices described by Vitruvius. Includes reproductions of his graphical reconstructions and a comparison with the cranes shown in Hatfield’s drawing the Escorial Palace under construction. Torno, tryspast, cabrita, cabrilla,
Camino, S., et al 2006 The subsoil network of bridges and vaults which cover the Esgueva River crossing ih the town of Valladolid in Spain. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 509-524. An archaeological, historical analysis and description of the 18th and 19th century fluvial and drainage infrastructure of Valladolid in Spain. Spain, rain, plain, drain
Campa, M.R. 2006 "Le Nouvelles Inventions pour Bien Bastir at a Petits Fraiz" by Philibert de L’Orme: a new way to conceive wood roof covering. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 525-542. A summary of the innovative timber structures of Philibert de L’Orme’s (1514-1570) that examines the political and intellectual context of his work, and its influences. France, Italy, timber, 16th, roofs, lamination, laminated, modular, pre-fabrication
Garcia, J. L, C de G, 2006 Juan Bautista de Toledo, architect and master builder at Monastery of Escorial (1563-1567). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 543-560. An analysis of construction management practices in 16th century Spain as exemplified by El Escorial, based on documentary sources such as government regulations, diaries and contract documentation. Spain, 16th, Escorial, contaduria, veeduria, aparejadores, tenedor, mayorales, sobrestantes, capataces, obrero, maestro
Cantabene, G., Dodaro, L., Lippiello, M. 2006 The repairs to the dome of the Chapel of St, Gennaro’s Treasure: the eighteenth century dispute between F. Sanfelice and G. Lucchese. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 561-578. Historical, archaeological and static analysis of the challenges attending the addition of a classically inspired dome to the gothic chapel of St Gennaro at Naples in the early 17th century, designed by the architect Francesco Grimaldi, and how those challenges were overcome. Illustrates the state of engineering knowledge in Italy at that time. Italy, naples, 17th, Grimaldi, Lamberti, church, dome
Caston, P. 2006 Historic roof trusses between 1500 and 1700 in German-speaking central Europe: documentation, analysis and development. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 579-598. The definitive analysis and description of the development of large timber roof structures within the Deutschersprachraume during the late Middle Ages and 17th century, based on documentary research, measured survey and tree ring dating. Well illustrated, including scale models. Principle examples: Church of St Andreas in Leoben-Goess (Austria); Church of St Martin in Baar, Canton Zug, (CH); Church of St. Saver, Leoben (Austria); Castle Weissenstein, Pommersfelden, Bavaria; Germany, Austria, Switzerland, 16th 17th , roof trusses, Wilhelm,timber
Ceraldi, C., Ermolli, E.R., Tempone, V. 2006 The Riding School in the Royal Palace of Naples: transformations in the timber covering structure. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 599-618. Historical, archaeological and engineering analysis of the 19th century repair of the 17-19th century roof structure of the Riding School of the Royal Palace at Naples, designed by landscape architect Antonio Niccolini (1772-1850). It presents a short introduction to the design of riding schools throughout Europe and then shows how the replacement trusses were built and how they performed in comparison to their predecessors. Well illustrated with copies of primary sources, 3D graphic models and analytical drawings. Italy, Naples, 19th, Fontana, Noccilini, BIM
Fusco, A.C. 2006 Giuseppe Venturoli (1768-1846) hydraulic engineer in the Papal State. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 619-630. The paper illustrates the history of the applied sciences, architecture and civil engineering in the early years of the Papal State, using the life of Giuseppe Venturoli as an example. Cites the principle people, institutions and types of structures erected. Italy, 18th, 19th, Bologna, Rome, Papal State
Chamorro, M.A., Cuernca, B. 2006 Ignasi Bosch Reitg and the construction of ’timbrel’ vaults during Post-War Girona, Catalonia. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 631-640. An historical biography of the early 20th C Spanish architect Ignasi Reitg, focusing on his adoption of the mediterranean thin-shell tile brick vault as a practical solution to shortages of steel and Portland cement in Spain after the Civil War. Cites the principal buildings, explains the operation and construction of the vaults and his patent for double curvature vaults.
Chieti, V. 2006 The role of the three-dimensional virtual model in the ’Replica’ project of architectural elements: the case of the Athenian Academy by Th. Hansen. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 641-656 Methodological study of ’plastico muraria’ architecture focusing on the 19th C Athens Academy of the Danish Hansen arcvhitects, and the value of 3D virtual models to understanding a structures history and performance. Greece, Danish, 19th, reconstruction, CAD, virtual. BIM
Chiou, B-S. 2006 Traditional master carpenters’ manuals in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 657-674. The paper considers four of the late medieval to 18th C master carpenters’ manuals of Taiwan that reflect the diversity of masters’ knowledge and concerns. The traditional apprenticeship of carpenters in Taiwan is outlined, followed by a brief outline and tabular comparison of the contents and key aspects of the manuals, including references to the role and importance of carpentry, rituals, animism,’fengshui’ and the different carpentry traditions of the southeast Asian nations. Taiwan, China, medieval, carpentry, Luban, Wang, Liu, animism, geomancy,
Chrimes, M.M. 2006 British and Irish civil engineers in the development of Argentina in the nineteenth century. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 675-694. One of a series of studies by the ICE examining the working lives of British and Irish engineers working abroad during the 19th century. Presents a summary of the emergence of the civil engineer as a recognised profession from the late 18th C and the importance of emigration to individual careers and the host countries, then focuses on those working in Argentina. Cites people, countries and projects and provides numerical analyses. Britain, Ireland, Argentina, emigration, engineers, railways, hydraulic, harbour,
Cipriani, B., Lau, W.W. 2006 Construction techniques in Medieval Cairo: the domes of the Mamluk Mausolea (1250AD-1517AD). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 695-716 Analysis of the masonry domes constructed in Cairo between 1250AD and 1517AD, a period of exceptional experimentation and productivity in the construction of funerary and charitable complexes, focusing on the funerary complexes of Umm Sultan Sha’ban (1369), Sultan Farag Ibn Barquq (1398-1411) and Amir Khayer Bek (1502). Presents metrical, structural, statical and aesthetic comparisons and suggests that domes might have been built without centring. Egypt, medieval, post-medieval, Mamluk, dome
Clarke, J.C. 2006 Cones not domes: John Nash and Regency structural innovation. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 717-740. Conference paper (cf. CH Vol 20) describing and explaining Nash’s innovative tent-like structure The Rotunda at Woolwich in London of 1820, which combines aesthetic elegance and military allusion with structural efficiency. Originally built as a temporary ballroom, it now houses the RA’s artillery museum. The paper examines precedents, the principal people involved, and successor buildings. Britain, London, 19th, Nash, temporary, Carlton House, Polygon, Brighton Pavilion,laminated, prefabrication, pre-fabrication, modular
Cleary, R. 2006 Lessons in tenuity: Frank Lloyd Wright’s bridges. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 741-758. Conference paper illustrating FL Wright’s collaboration with the engineer Jaroslav Joseph Polivka (1886-196) in the design and construction of aesthetically and structurally innovative bridges. Names the other people involved and the principal structures. America, USA, bridge, span,
Como, M. et al 2006 Historical statical analysis of the Coliseum. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 759-777 Conference paper examining the statical performance of the roman Coliseum at Rome; evidence of failure and repair, the reasons for that failure, particularly seismic activity and the structure’s capacity for movement. Italy, Rome, Roman, statics, masonry, earthquake, repair,
Como, M.T. 2006 Analysis of the statics of the Mycenaean tholoi. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 777-790. Conference paper examining the statical behaviour of the enigmatic Bronze Age tholoi tombs of Mycenaean Greece. Summarises foregoing archaeological and architectural analyses; analysis the statics of an exemplar tholoi and concludes that, contrary to received wisdom, tholoi suggest that dome construction preceded the masonry arch. Greece, Crete, Bronze Age, tomb, tholoi, dome, statics
Conchon, A. 2006 Road construction in eighteenth century France. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 791-798 Conference paper discussing how technical improvements and standardisation of road construction in 18th C France lead to changes in the organisation of labour. It examines: the institutional and financial arrangements; the techniques of road construction; and finally posits that improvements in fact affected a minority of roads because the system of feudal tolls and statute labour prevented widespread adoption. France, 18th, roads, corvee, Tresaguet, Perronet, Saint-Andre, labour, roadworks, Navier, Schwilgue, Coriolis
Condorelli, S. 2006 The reconstruction of Catania after the earthquake of 1693. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 799-816. Conference paper using a wide variety of archives (government, institutions, families) to explain how the city of Catania was rebuilt after the devastating earthquake of 1693 that killed 80% of its population and destroyed nearly all of its buildings. The paper examines: the conditions prior to reconstruction; the reaction and strategies of the various civic groups and social classes; duration of reconstruction; comparison with the reconstructions of Lisbon (1755) and London (1666). Italy, Sicily, Catania, 17th, 18th, earthquake, reconstruction, seismic
Copani, P. 2006 Ancient wooden roofs in Sicily: the heritage of Taormina. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 817-836. Conference paper examining the structural and decorative characteristics of late medieval timber roofs, floors and wall frames in Sicily, using the Corvaja Palace and the principal churches of Taormina as examples. . Italy, Sicily, Taormina, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, roof, floor, timber, carved, ancones
Corradi, M. 2006 A short account of the history of structural dynamics between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 837-854. Conference paper summarising the historical development of the science of structural dynamics from Aristotle (384-322BC) to the present day. Science, Aristotle, Aristarchus, Hipparchus, Ptolomey, Brahe, Kepler, Newton, Leibnitz, Euler, Lagrange, Bernoulli, Laplace, Poincare, Lie, Strutt
Cossu, G.P. 2006 Technologies in comparison. Glass tube production, project and implementation: from S.C. Johnson & Son’s research laboratory tower by Wright to today’s experimentations. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 855 - 876. Conference paper examining the manner in which different structural forms, materials have interplayed to drive architectural development., I think!. Focussing oh the work of F.L.Wright.
Croize, J-C. 2006 A time when France chose to use prefabricated panel construction systems: the ’4000 Logements de la Region Parisienne’ Programme (1952-1958). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 877-886. Conference paper examining the political decision, and consequences, of the Post-War French government to use mass produced prefabricated construction for housing, against the advice received at the time. France, 20th, prefabrication, pre-fabrication, mass housing, INSEE, SERPEC, MRU, CPTG,
Cross-Rudkin, P. 2006 Centres for large span masonry arch bridges in Britain to 1833. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 887-902. Conference paper with excellent illustrations explaining how bridge centring was undertaken in Britain prior to the railway age. Britain, 18th, 19th, bridge, centring, temporary works, striking
Guerrieri, C, D’A., & Fallacara, G. 2006 Helicoidal construction geometry and oblique architectural arrangement. The spiral staircase of the Belvedere and the argument between de L’Orme and Bramante: digital models compared. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 903-916. Conference paper examining the cultural and methodological changes imposed by the adoption of stereotomy in France in the 16th C, which required more than just a nice drawings, using 3D digital models of celebrated spiral staircases such as the Belvedere in Rome and Saint-Etienne-du-Mont in Paris to examine the efficacy of the ’Italian’ and ’French’ schools. France, Italy, 16th, 17th, de L’Orme, Bramante, stereotomy, BIM
Dahmen, J. 2006 Moorish bridges of Andalucia. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 917-934.. Conference paper examining the contribution of Islamic builders to developments in post-Roman bridge design, using those of southern Spain as exemplars. Cited bridges: Nogales, Cantarranas, Guadiato, Quebrado, Guadalbacar, Pinos Puente, Tejera. Spain, Umayyad, Abbasid, medieval, bridge, horseshoe arch.
Dominguez, L. de V., & Cossio, F.V. 2006 The horseshoe arch in Toledo. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 935-951. Conference paper presenting the results of a survey of horseshoe arches in the Spanish city of Toledo, that characterised their geometry, uses and dates. Spain, medieval, Visigoth, arch
Defilippis, F. 2006 Architecture and stereotomy: the relation between the ’construction apparatus’ and the ’decorative apparatus’ of the cut-stone vaults and domes of Philibert de L’Orme and Andres de Vandelvira. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 951-9658. Conference paper examining the cultural and methodological differences between the French engineer and the Spanish architect in their use of stereotomy. Uses the Chapel of Salvador at Ubeda and the Chapel at Anet as case studies. France, Spain, 16th, stereotomy, dome, vault.
Delemontey, Y. 2006 The MRU experimental building competitions (1947-1951): the birth of industrialised building in France. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 969-988. Conference paper examining the role of the French government department Ministere de la Reconstruction et de L’Urbanisme in the rebuilding of France after the Second World War using mass-produced and industrialised systems. France, 20th, prefabrication, pre-fabrication, industrialised, mass-production.
Durbin, L. 2006 Nineteenth century tiles. Industrial mass production and construction methods of interior tile schemes in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 989-1006. Conference paper illustrating the manufacturing methods and architectural consequences of industrialised tile production in 19th C Britain. Cites the main manufacturers, exemplar buildings and the architects responsible for them. Britain, 19th, tiles, mass-produced, industrialised, Minton, Carter, Wright, Maw, Godwin
Arsan, Z.D. 2006 The use of Saint-Gobain glass roof tile in the new urban districts of turn-of-the-century Izmir. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1007-1022. Conference paper examining the cultural and trade links between France and Turkey in the late 19th century as exemplified by the use of Saint-Gobain glass tiles in private housing in Izmir. Turkey, France, 19th, 20th, glass, glazing, tiles, trade, mediterranean
Eggemann, H. 2006 Simplified design of composite columns, based on a comparative study of the development of Building Regulations in Germany and the United States. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1023-1042. Conference paper proposing a method for determining load resistance of early columns of composite construction, based on the analysis of historical sources, specifically building regulations and codes, and citing exemplar buildings in the US and the German-speaking world. USA, Germany, 19th, 20th, composite columns, McGraw, Ericsson
Gallo, E. 2006 Jean Simon Bonnemain (1743-1830) and the origins of hot water central heating. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1043-1060. Conference paper exploring the life and influence of the French inventor Jean Simon Bonnemain on the invention and development of hot water central heating and other heated devices. France, 18th, heating.
Ewen, S. 2006 The problem of fire in nineteenth century British cities: the case of Glasgow. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1961-1074. Conference paper examining improvements in fire prevention and fire control in British cities from the late 18th C. Presents data on fire frequency, building control and fire control mechanisms. Britain, Scotland, 19th, fire
Fallacara, G. 2006 Digital stereotomy and topological transformations: reasoning about shape- building. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1075-1092. Methodological conference paper exploring the use of 3D digital modelling in the analysis of complex curt-stone structures. Presents a brief summary of the subject history, the principal people and buildings and then uses 3D modelling to compare the structures as-built with the historical designs. France, Spain, 16th, stereotomy, Curabelle, Desargues, de L’Orme, Vandelvira, Arenas, Frezier, Truchet, Abeille, BIM
Fedorov, S. G. 2006 Construction History in the Soviet Union-Russia 1930-2005. Emergence, development and disappearance of a technical discipline. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1093-1112. Conference paper examining the relatively long history of Construction History as an academic and technical discipline in the former Soviet Union; it’s role in fomenting national consequence and the industrialisation of construction. USSR, Soviet Union, Russia, 20th, history, nationalism, industrialisation.
Ficarelli, L. 2006 Town morphology: the relationship between form and building. Preservation and recovery of dwelling houses in historical centres and in particular the ’Double-Reservoir’ building type of Corato (Bari). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1113-1124. Conference paper proposing an archaeology-based methodology for town-planning analyses of historic towns, using Corato in Italy and its problematic water supply as a case study. Italy, archaeology, town planning, spatial analyses.
Fleury, F., & Lacroix, A. 2006 Analysis of the sub-rafter (sous arbaletrier) in French medieval timberwork. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1125-1136. Conference paper presenting an historical and structural analysis of a French type of roof truss, specifically the ’sous arbaletrier’ or secondary rafter France, medieval, roof truss, rafter, carpentry.
Fontana, L. 2006 Molding earth outline: typology, technology and morphology of earth building. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 1 pp 1137-1154. Conference paper presenting an historical, structural and chemical analysis of earth-based construction techniques around the world. Global, Europe, America, Africa, Asia, cob, adobe, pise, earth.
Franco, J.A, et al 2006 Vaults and other constructive singularities in the monastery of San Martin Pinario. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 2, pp 1155-1170. Conference paper presenting an historical, archaeological and engineering analysis of the medieval monastery of San Martin Pinario in Santiago de Compostela. Spain, medieval, church, monastery, vaults, statics, stereotomy
Friedman, D. 2006 Building Code enforced evolution in early skeleton buildings. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 2, pp 1171-1188. Conference paper examining the factors that influenced the evolution of framed high-rise buildings in America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including a detailed comparison of construction costs for the different types of frame. USA, America, 19th, 20th, sky-scraper, high-rise, bearing-wall, cage, skeleton, costs,
Garcia, R. 2006 Concrete folded plates in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 2, pp 1189-1208. Conference paper examining the use of complex ’folded plate’ concrete structures in Dutch buildings in the late 20th C. Summarises the history of the technology in Germany and identifies exemplar buildings, particularly the Delft PS Auditorium, and people. Netherlands, Germany, 20th, Ehlers, Glanerbug, Den Helder, Zeist, Hoensbroek, Scheveningen, Delft,
Gargiulo, M.R, and Bergamasco, I. 2006 The use of earth in the architecture of Hassan Fathy and Fabrizio Carola: typological and building innovations, building technology and static behaviour. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol. 2, pp 1209-1220 Conference paper examining the use of earth as a wall and vault material in 20th century buildings in Egypt and Mali designed by the Egyptian Hassan Fathy and the Italian Fabrizio Carola, including a brief history of its use in the Middle East. Earth, Africa, Egypt, Mali, adobe, pise, 20th
Mascarenhas-Mateus, Joao 2020 Construction History and the History of Construction Cultures: Between Architecture and Engineering in PortugaL This paper aims to debate the epistemological boundaries of construction history, in relation to the fields of history of architecture and the history of engineering, using Portugal as a case study. The concept of construction culture is used to broaden the analysis, avoiding the old dichotomy between architects and engineers. Instead, construction history (understood as the history of construction cultures) aims to integrate the contributions of all actors in this sector of activity, such as contractors, materials and machine producers, traders, and public and private institutions. The history of architecture and the history of engineering in Portugal serves to illustrate the extent to which the study of how a community built in a particular space, at a particular time, is fragmented in the present age. The conclusions highlight the limits of a history that has been interpreted mainly from the point of view of the activity of architects and engineers. This paper also explores the potential of a history of construction cultures as a constructum in constant transition and under constant discussion, capable of explaining the set of problems involved in this millennia-old human activity. Epistemology, Architecture, Engineering, Construction History, Portugal
Gasparini, D.A., & Provost, C. 2006 The Prestressing of Structures: a Historical Review. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1221-1232. Conference paper examining the historical use of pre-stressing from ancient Egypt to the present. Identifies the use of the technique in ancient Egyptian boats; 19th C trusses and the Ferris Wheel; the Wright Brothers’ Flying Pratt truss in their aeroplanes; reinforced concrete; Roebling’s San Marcos Bridge; and then presents a short analysis and explanation of how it works. Pre-stressing, prestressing, pre-stressed, prestressed.
Giacomini, L. 2006 The Management of Private Building Yards in Milan between 1550 and 1650: a History Reconstructed through Building and Supply Contracts. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1233-1250. Conference paper examining 40 building contracts from mid 16th to mid 17th century Milan, mainly for patrician houses, villas and chapels of the Medici di Melagnano, Cicogna, Cusani, Visconti and Trivulzio families. The buildings were designed by architects such as Galeazzo Alessi (1512-1572), Giovanni Ambrogio Alciati (/-1590), Vincenzo Seregni (1509-1594), Pellegrino Pellegrini (1527-1596), Martino Bassi (1542-1591), Giuseeppe Meda (/-1599), Fabio Mangone (1587-1629) and Francesco Maria Richini (1583-1658). The contracts are between the client and the contractors: no record of the relationship between client and architect has been identified. The paper examines the different types of contracts and payment criteria; the hierarchies and relationships between the designers/architecdts, master builders, masters, labourers and garzoni. Italy, Renaissance, 16th , 17th, contracts, payment
Giglio, A. 2006 The Decorative Use of Concrete in an ’Other’ Modernism: Italian Architecture of the Dodecanese (1912-1943). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1251-1270. Conference paper examining the attempt of the Italian government to create a local architectural style for the Aegean Islands under its occupation between 1912 and 1943, that was neither wholly Italian or Greek, and the role that concrete played in that architecture. Aegean, Italy, Greece, mediterranean, Fascism, 20th C, concrete
Giustina, I., Tomasoni, E., & Giuriani, E. 2006 The Early Dome of Sant’ Alessandro in Milan (1627): a First Study of the Behaviour of the Structural Core with a Dome Resting on Four Free-Standing Pillars. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1271-1292. Conference paper examining the statics of quincunx plan buildings, specifically the church of S. Allessandro in Zebedia, of the Barnabite Order, built at Milan from 1602 to the designs of Lorenzo Binago(1554-1629), the dome of which failed and was demolished within a year of completion. Italy, 17th C, quincunx, failure, dome.
Godier, P., & Tapie, G. 2006 The Contemporary French Model of Architecture and the Construction Professions (1970-1990). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1293-1305. Conference paper examining changes in the working lives of construction professionals during the last quarter of the 20th C. France, 20th C, professions, collaboration.
Gonzalez-Tascon, I., Cardiel, I.B., & Velazquez, I 2006 The organization of building work and construction of siphons in Roman aqueducts in Hispania. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1305-1322. Conference paper examining, in detail, how the siphons of Roman water supply systems in Spain were designed, procured and constructed. Explains and names the roles and offices; the materials and how they were supplied; the components; the tools and machines employed and then describes key surviving examples at Almunecar (Roman Sexi), Cadiz (Gades), Saelices (Segobriga), Zaragoza (Caesaraugusta) and Toledo (Toletum). Spain, Hispania, Roman, infrastructure, water supply, siphon, civil engineering, sur4veying.
Gonzalez, J.L. 2006 The square cube law: from Vitruvius to Gaudi. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1323-1340. Conference paper examining the meaning, origins and application of the so-called ’square cube law’ in historic construction and architecture, with special reference to the work of Gaudi. Vitruvius, Galileo, Gaudi, Guell, Sagrada Familia
Gonzalez-Longo, C. 2006 Giacomo Boni at the Musee Forense: Construction History as a source for architectural innovation. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Vol 2 pp 1341-1362. Conference paper examining how the archaeological work of Giacomo Boni (1859-1925) at the forum in Rome, and his friendship with John Ruskin and correspondence with members of SPAB, influenced his innovative structural conservation of the monastery of Santa Francesca Romana-Santa Maria Nova in Rome. The paper explains his brief, his outline proposal, his preliminary studies and surveys, procurement, changes to the strategy and design, the consolidation and temporary works, conservation techniques and materials, and the criteria and cultural context that informed the decisions made. Italy, Rome, 20th, conservation, professionals, philosophy
Vitti, P. 2016 Building Roman Greece. Innovation in Vaulted Construction in the Peloponnese This book discusses a selection of 29 vaulted Roman buildings in the Peloponnese dating from the 1st century BC to 3rd century AD. The study fills a gap in the studies of Roman construction, which have generally failed to seek innovation in the building techniques outside Central Italy. The research revealed the importance of Roman architecture in the Peloponnese and its contribution to the development of construction techniques. vaulted roman building, construction techniques
Amici, C.M. 2016 Architettura romana. Dal cantiere all’architetto: soluzioni concrete per idee progettuali. (with english abstracts) It was standard practice in Roman times for the architect’s construction program to be taken over and given material form by the foreman and his workers, who adopted a distinctly operational process. It was a seemingly one-way process, which appeared to give a purely technical, marginal role to those in charge of the construction site, who were entrusted solely with the practical aspects of the project. Actually, it was in many ways an authentic dialogue, generally in a lower key in the case of the role played by the construction site, with the building itself as the true response to the design. However, a reversal of this trend can be seen in those cases where construction requirements led to innovative technical solutions, with some special measures formulated on the ground being taken up and adopted by the architect, who would then make use of them, adapting and converting them, in later projects, providing an extremely clear indication of the vitality and dynamism of Roman architecture. The conditions for innovations of this type to come about were the result of a very particular cultural climate, in which the considerable economic power of the patrons was coupled with extraordinary skills applied to projects that were demanding in terms of both size and techniques. 1) The use of metal grids; 2) Modular ceiling slabs; 3) The introduction of metal chains; 4) Use of columns and reinforced flat arches; 5) Technical innovations in vaulting systems. technical solutions,iron devices, logistical organization
Amici, C.M. 2015 “Unusual Examples of Sophisticated Iron Technology in the Heating System of Roman Imperial Baths” In Roman imperial times, metallurgy reached a high degree of specialization and complexity. The use of iron extended even to building technology, leading to some very particular results, achieving a sophisticated mastery of the technology with a complete understanding of metal properties, in a social and economic context characterized by large financial resources and a high level of creativity applied to architectural projects. heating system, iron device
Amici, C.M. 2016 "The Roofing System of the Tripartite Building at Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli (Italy)". In Further studies in the Construction History, vol. 1, Cambridge 2016, pp. 109- 118. The reconstruction of the roofing system of the three large halls of the Edificio Tripartito at the Villa Adriana, Tivoli, has always been problematic because they have spans between 7.0 and 9.0 meters with supporting walls only 60 cm thick. Lying on the ground are fragments of very peculiar flat concrete ceiling slabs up to 90 cm thick, apparently built on wood formworks, which have provoked several unsatisfactory attempts to resolve the roofing problem. However, a careful analysis of the slabs, made in several layers of opus coementicium, opus spicatum and cocciopesto, and a final layer of mosaic, allows for a new reconstruction revealing an innovative system for building a flat concrete roof. Moreover, remains of lead sheets, inserted in one of the best preserved specimens of the slabs, show the provision for the drainage of rain water on the exterior terrace. The technique employed is very unusual, and at the moment is not documented elsewhere in the context of Roman architecture; clearly, this arrangement was conceived and tested during the construction of the building by a particularly skilled group of workers, once again highlighting the role of Villa Adriana during Emperor Hadrian’s time as a laboratory for technical and architectural experimentation.
Lancaster,Lynne 2005 Concrete vaulted construction in Imperial Rome Merthod and techniques that enabled builders to construct some of the most imposing monuments of ancient Rome, focusing on structural innovative vaulting and the factors that influenced its advancement. vaulting construction, vaulting technique
Martin-Talaverano, R., and Murillo-Fragero, J.I. 2020 Construction materials and scaffoldings during the Middle Ages: A comparative analysis of case studies in Castile and Leon, Spain (XI XVI centuries). Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 1-24 The construction technology of the Middle Ages has been analysed in several researches and, except for some studies regarding the early medieval period, most of them are generally focused on the vaults and they cover just a particular historical period. For this reason, this work has two main objectives. Firstly, to study other complementary issues of the constructive process which are also related between them, namely the amount of stone which was used in the building and the scaffolding system. Secondly, to understand the evolution of the constructive techniques during the Middle Ages thanks to a diachronic approach over several historical periods. For that purpose, a comparative analysis of six buildings has been developed, including an on-site inspection and three-dimensional modelling. Thus, specific data has been obtained and it is worth underlining that on the one hand, the constructive benefits carried out by the evolution of the vaulting system since the use of ribbed vaults (from the XIII century) have a direct relationship with the saving of material in comparison with the use of Romanesque barrel vaults. On the other hand, such a reduction in the amount of material used, together with the advances in the development of lifting machinery, could have allowed the use of lighter scaffoldings.
Yazgan, E.O., and Boothby, T.E. 2020 Describing the historical and technical context of mill buildings around 1900: The Whiting Foundry Equipment Company Complex in Harvey, Ill. Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 25-42. This article aims to analyze a 19th century mill building in a historical and technical context. The former home of the Whiting Foundry Equipment Company is a significant industrial complex, representative of the history of manufacturing in south suburban Chicago. The nucleus of the plant, built in 1894, underwent a number of additions and modifications throughout the first half of the 20th century. The complex is significant in three categories: industrial architecture, industrial construction, and industrial expansion. It is also among the few major industrial buildings in this area that are still used for some form of manufacturing, with the majority of such buildings having been vacated and razed. A particular focus will be a linear complex known as the machine shop, built in five phases from 1894-1916. With data obtained by archival research, site surveys and comparative study, this study examines the construction history, key features, construction type, and structural components of the machine shop of this unique building complex. Beyond the details of the case study, this paper also comprises methods used for analyzing an industrial heritage site. More general conclusions concerning industrialization and industrial construction result from these studies. industrial heritage, industrial construction, 19th century, mill building, Chicago, Harvey, Illinois
Cruise, R. 2020 The 300m Eiffel Tower: The role of a structural principle. Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 43-66. The Eiffel Tower has an iconic curved silhouette which was declared by the Tower’s designer, Gustave Eiffel, to have been determined by the pattern of wind loads acting on the Tower, using a structural principle. Adherence to this principle removed the need for cross-bracing to achieve stability, increasing the structure’s efficiency. When proposed, nothing equalling the Tower’s 300m height had ever been built and there was concern over whether wind loads at this height could be resisted, as well as the visual impact of the Tower. The principle was used to address both concerns, portraying the unusual profile as a technical necessity, rather than an aesthetic choice. However, cross-bracing has been used in the Tower’s top two-thirds, so the role of the principle in the Tower’s design isn’t completely clear. The analysis presented here demonstrates a lack of adherence to the principle in the initial proposals, a good adherence later on, but the final design shows a fundamental deviation from its use. Eiffel’s proclaimed use of the structural principle for reasons of structural efficiency can therefore be seen as a justification of the feasibility and aesthetics of the proposal, masking the uncertainties inherent in designing the tallest Tower at that time. Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel, 1880-1900, wind loading, iron structures, design processes.
Kroll, D. 2020 Speculative House Builders as Designers: The Case of the Reader Brothers 1898-1939 in Greater London. Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 67-88. Speculative house building in the early 20th century has significantly shaped the London we know today. Yet, the design of that housing, and who was responsible for it, is still an under researched topic. One assumption expressed in the literature is that much of London’s housing before 1939 was built from pattern books without the need for architectural drawings or design. Recent studies, however, have begun to question that assumption and have shed more light on the roles, relationships and processes in housing design at the time. This paper contributes to this body of research with a case study of the Reader Brothers, a small family business of builders that constructed housing 1898-1939 in today’s Greater London. The Readers are a rare example of a firm involved in the design of speculative housing at the time and for which substantial archival material is available. This paper discusses the role of the Readers in the design and development of their houses and shows how they crossed occupational boundaries of builder, developer and designer. Readers, builders, London, speculative, housing design, inter-war, Edwardian
Leslie, T. 2020 Fluorescent Lamps: Visual and Thermal Comfort in Modern Interiors. Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 89-112. Air conditioning’s impact on the modern office interior was immediate and profound but lost in historical concentrations on thermal comfort has been the importance of fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent lamps and fixtures were key components of what Reyner Banham called “power-membrane ceilings,” key counterparts to the glass curtain walls of the 1950s and 1960s. Fluorescent lamps relied on 19th century advances, but they were spurred on by the expiration of incandescent patents in the 1930s. Keen to find new markets to corner, General Electric and Westinghouse developed commercially viable lamps that offered greater electrical and thermal efficiency. Avoiding the heat gain of incandescent lamps, however, was only part of fluorescent lamps’ impact on thermal comfort. Their cool operating temperatures allowed the use of easily-formed plastics to house them, leading to reflectors and diffusers that distributed or focused their light with precision. Fluorescent lighting’s success can be measured by the evolving standards for light levels—which leapt from 3-4 foot-candles (32-40 lux) for clerical work in 1918 to 100 foot-candles (1,000 lux) in 1960. This matched air conditioning’s influence on comfort standards as well as its ability to homogenise office floor plates,tuning light levels to tasks below and adding regimented, gridded order to open plan office floors. Lighting, Office Planning, Interior Design, Fluorescent, Air Conditioning.
Madrid, J.F. 2020 Some notes for the history of rain-screen wall: Precedents of this constructive assembly (1950-1965). Construction History, Vol 35 No 2, pp 113-132. This paper presents the state-of-the-art construction technology from the 1950s and 1960s (in western architecture) for the prevention of water ingress through building façades, as well as more traditional construction solutions that can be considered antecedents of the ventilated façade. Three different construction systems have been combined in the development of the rainscreen wall as a new independent façade system. The tabique pluvial, the cavity wall and the curtain wall, successively provided the mechanisms to control water ingress and condensation in a façade exposed to wind driven rain. This paper offers some case study examples - Crane (1952), Rogers (1955), Ortiz Echagüe (1956), Schaal (1961), Eichler (1969) - which exemplify the state-of-the-art technical solutions to protect façades against water, not always with the same purpose, but with designs very close to a ventilated façade. Finally, a careful chronology is established which helps to order the contributions of specialists and professionals from different cultures, who helped the invention of the ventilated façade as a new and definitive construction assembly. Construction history, rainscreen wall, ventilated fa.ade, construction assembly, tabique pluvial, cavity wall, curtain wall.
Guy Lambert et Franz Graf 2004 The Sheds of the Voirin-Marinoni Factory in Montataire Industrial architecture in the Perret brothers’ work between the two wars has been well documented in the past few years. In the economic context of reconstruction, this aspect of their activity is predominant in their professional strategy. It differs markedly from the usual running of the “Perret entity,” which rests on the close association between the building firm and the architecture practice. Perret, Reinforced Concrete, Interwar Years
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